The Berne Convention – Berlin Act 1908

伯尔尼公约1908年柏林文本

Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berlin Act, 1908)

This edition published in The Copyright Act, 1911 (UK).

Article 1.
The Contracting States are constituted into an Union for the protection of the rights of authors over their literary and artistic works.

  Article 2.
The expression "literary and artistic works" shall include any production in the literary, scientific or artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its reproduction, such as books, pamphlets, and other writings; dramatic or dramatico-musical works, choreographic works and pantomimes, the acting form of which is fixed in writing or otherwise; musical compositions with or without words; works of design, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography; illustrations, geographical charts; plans, sketches, and plastic works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science .

Translations, adaptations, arrangements of music and other reproductions in an altered form of a literary or artistic work as well as collections of different works, shall be protected as original works without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work.

The contracting countries shall bound to make provision for the protection of the above-mentioned Works.

Works of art applied to industrial purposes shall be protected so far as the domestic legislation of each country allows.

  Article 3.
The present Convention shall apply to photographic works and to works produced by a process analogous to photography. The contracting countries shall be bound to make provision for their protection.

  Article 4.
Authors who are subjects or citizens of any of the countries of the Union shall enjoy in countries other than the country of origin of the work, for their works, whether unpublished or first published in a country of the Union, the rights which the respective law’s do now or may hereafter grant to natives as well as the rights specially granted by the present Convention.

The enjoyment and the exercise of these rights shall not be subject to the performance of any formality; such enjoyment and such exercise are independent of the existence of protection in the country of origin of the work. Consequently, apart from the express stipulations of the present Convention, the extent of protection, as well as the means of redress secured to the author to safeguard his rights, shall be governed exclusively by the laws of the country where protection is claimed.

The country of origin of the work shall be considered to be: in the case of unpublished works, the country to which the author belongs; in the case of published works, the country of first publication; and in the case of works published simultaneously in several countries of the Union, the country the laws of which grant the shortest period of protection. In the case of works published simultaneously in a country outside the Union and in a country of the Union: the latter country shall be considered exclusively as the country of origin.

By published works must be understood, for the purposes of the present Convention, works copies of which are issued by a publisher. The representation of a dramatic or dramatico-musical work, the performance of a musical work,  the exhibition of a work of art, and the construction of a work of architecture shall not constitute a publication.

  Article 5.
Authors being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union who first publish their works in another country of the Union shall have in this latter country the same rights as native authors.

  Article 6.
Authors not being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union, who first publish their works in one of those countries, shall enjoy in that country the same rights as native authors, and in the other countries of the Union the rights granted by the present Convention.

  Article 7.
The term of protection granted by the present Convention shall include the life of the author and fifty years after his death.

Nevertheless, in case such term of protection should not be uniformly adopted by all the countries of the Union, the term shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, and must not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work. Consequently the contracting countries shall only be bound to apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph in so far as such provisions are consistent with their domestic laws.

For photographic works and works produced by a process analogous to photography, for posthumous works, for anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, provided that the said term shall not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work.

  Article 8.
The authors of unpublished works, being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union, and the authors  of works first published in one of those countries shall enjoy, in the other countries of the Union, during the whole term of the right in the original work, the exclusive right of making or authorizing a translation of their works.

  Article 9.
Serial stories, tales, and all other works, whether literary, scientific, or artistic, whatever their object published in the newspapers or periodicals of one of the countries of the Union may not be reproduced in the other countries without the consent of the authors.

With the exception of serial stories and tales, any newspaper article may be reproduced by another newspaper unless the reproduction thereof is expressly forbidden. Nevertheless, the source must be indicated; the legal consequences of the breach of this obligation shall be determined by the laws of the country where protection is claimed.

The protection of the present Convention shall not apply to news of the day or to miscellaneous information which is simply of the nature of items of news.

  Article 10.
As regards the liberty of extracting portions from literary or artistic works for use in publications destined for educational purposes, or having a scientific character, or for chrestomathies (selections of choice passages from an author or authors), the effect of the legislation of each country of the Union and of special Arrangements existing or to be concluded, between them is not affected by the present Convention.

  Article 11.
The stipulations of the present Convention shall apply to the public representation of dramatic or dramatico-musical works and to the public performance of musical works, whether such works be published or not .

Authors of dramatic or dramatico-musical works shall be protected during the existence of their right over the original  work against the unauthorized public representation of translations of their works.

In order to enjoy the protection of the present Article, authors shall not be bound in publishing their works to forbid the public representation or performance thereof.

  Article 12.
The following shall be specially included among the unlawful reproductions to which the present Convention applies: Unauthorized indirect appropriations of a literary or artistic work, such as adaptations, musical arrangements, transformations of a novel, tale, or piece of poetry into a dramatic piece and vice versa, &c., when they are only the reproduction of that work, in the same form or in another form, without essential alterations, additions, or abridgments, and do not present the character of a new original work.

  Article 13.
The authors of musical works shall have the exclusive right of authorizing (1) the adaptation of those works to instruments which can reproduce them mechanically; (2) the public performance of the said works by means of these instruments.

Reservations and conditions relating to the application of this Article may be determined by the domestic legislation of each country in so far as it is concerned; but the effect, of any such reservations and conditions will be strictly limited to the country which has put them in force.

The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not be retroactive, and consequently shall not be applicable in any country of the Union to works which have been lawfully adapted in that country to mechanical instruments before the coming into force of the present Convention.

Adaptations made in virtue of paragraphs 2 and 3 of the present Article, and imported without the authority of the interested parties into a country where they would not be lawful, shall be liable to seizure in that country.

Article 14.
Authors of literary, scientific or artistic works shall have the exclusive right of authorizing the reproduction and public representation of their works by cinematography.

Cinematograph productions shall be protected as literary or artistic works if, by the arrangement of the acting form or the combinations of the incidents represented, the author has given the work a personal and original character.

Without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work the reproduction by cinematography of a literary, scientific or artistic work shall be protected as an original work.

The above provisions apply to reproduction or production effected by any other process analogous to cinematography.

  Article 15.
In order that the authors of works protected by the present Convention shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be considered as such, and be consequently admitted to institute proceedings against pirates before the Courts of the various countries of the Union, it will be sufficient that their name be indicated on the work in the accustomed manner.

For anonymous or pseudonymous works the publisher, whose name is indicated on the work, shall be entitled to protect the rights belonging to the author. He shall be, without other proof, deemed to be the legal representative of the anonymous or pseudonymous author.

  Article 16.
Pirated works may be seized by the competent authorities of any country of the Union where the original work enjoys legal protection.

In such a country the seizure may also apply to reproductions imported from a country where the work is not protected, or has ceased to be protected.

The seizure shall take place in accordance with the domestic legislation of each country.

Article 17
The provisions of the present Convention cannot in any way derogate from the right belonging to the Government of each country of the Union to permit, to control, or to prohibit, by measures of domestic legislation or police, the circulation, representation, or exhibition of any works or productions in regard to which the competent authority may find it necessary to exercise that right.

  Article 18.
The present Convention shall apply to all works which at the moment of its coming into force have not yet fallen into the public domain in the country of origin through the expiration of the term of protection.

If, however, through the expiration of the term of protection which was previously granted, a work has fallen into the public domain of the country where protection is claimed, that work shall not be protected anew in that country.

The application of this principle shall take effect according to the stipulations contained in special Conventions existing, or to be concluded, to that effect between countries of the Union. In the absence of such stipulations, the respective countries shall regulate, each in so far as it is concerned, the manner in which the said principle is to be applied.

The above provisions shall apply equally in case of new accessions to the Union, and also in the event of the term of protection being extended by the application of Article 7.

  Article 19.
The provisions of the present Convention shall not prevent a claim being made for the application of any wider provisions which may be made by the legislation of a country of the Union in favour of foreigners in general.

  Article 20.
The Governments of the countries of the Union reserve to themselves the right to enter into special arrangements  between each other, provided always that such arrangements confer upon authors more extended rights than those granted by the Union, or embody other stipulations not contrary to the present Convention. The provisions of existing arrangements which answer to the above-mentioned conditions shall remain applicable.

  Article 21.
The International Office established under the name of the "Office of the International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works" shall be maintained.

That office is placed under the high authority of the Government of the Swiss Confederation, which regulates its organization and supervises its working.

The official language of the Office shall be French.

  Article 22.
The International Office collects every kind of information relative to the protection of the rights of authors over their literary and artistic works. It arranges and publishes such information. It undertakes the study of questions of general interest concerning the Union, and by the aid of documents placed at its disposal by the different Administrations, edits a periodical publication in the French language on the questions which concern the objects of the Union. The Governments of the countries of the Union reserve to themselves the power to authorize by common accord the publication by the Office of an edition in one or more other languages, if experience should show this to be requisite.

The International Office will always hold itself at the disposal of members of the Union with the view to furnish them with any special information which they may require relative to the protection of literary and artistic works.

The Director of the International Office shall make an annual report on his administration, which shall be communicated to all the members of the Union.

Article 23
The expenses of the Office of the International Union shall be shared by the contracting countries. Until a fresh decision is arrived at, they cannot exceed the sum of 60,000 fr. a year. This sum may be increased, if necessary, by the simple decision of one of the Conferences provided for in Article 24.

The share of the total expense to be paid by each country shall be determined by the division of the contracting and acceding countries into six classes, each of which shall contribute in the proportion of a certain number of units, viz. : —

1st class   25 units.

2nd „       20 „

3rd „       15 „

4th „       10 „

5th „       5 „

6th „       3 „

These coefficients are multiplied by the number of countries of each class, and the total product thus obtained gives the number of units by which the total expense is to be divided. The quotient gives the amount of the unit of expense.

Each country shall declare, at the time of its accession, in which of the said classes it desires to be placed.

The Swiss Administration prepares the Budget of the Office, superintends its expenditure, makes the necessary advances, and draws up the annual account which will be communicated to all the other Administrations.

  Article 24.
The present Convention may be submitted to revisions in order to introduce therein amendments calculated to perfect the system of the Union.

Questions of this kind, as well as those which are of interest to the Union in other respects, shall be considered in Conferences to be held successively in the countries of the Union by delegates of the said countries. The Adminis-  tration of the country where a Conference is to meet prepares, with the assistance of the International Office, the work of the Conference. The Director of the Office shall attend at the sittings of the Conferences, and shall take part in the discussions without the right to vote.

No alteration in the present Convention shall be binding on the Union except by the unanimous consent of the countries composing it.

  Article 25.
States outside the Union which make provision for the legal protection of rights forming the object of the present Convention may accede thereto on request to that effect.

Such accession shall be notified in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it to all the other countries of the Union.

Such accession shall imply full adhesion to all the clauses and admission to all the advantages provided by the present Convention. It may, nevertheless, contain an indication of the provisions of the Convention of the 9th September, 1886, or of the Additional Act of the 4th May, 1896, which they may judge necessary to substitute, provisionally at least, for the corresponding provisions of the present Convention.

  Article 26.
Contracting countries shall have the right to accede to the present Convention at any time for their Colonies or foreign possessions.

They may do this either by a general Declaration comprising in the accession all their Colonies or possessions, or by specially naming those comprised therein, or by simply indicating those which are excluded.

Such Declaration shall be notified in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it to all the other countries of the Union.

  Article 27.
The present Convention shall replace, in regard to the relations between the Contracting States, the Convention  of Berne of the 9th September, 1886, including the Additional Article and the Final Protocol of the same date, as well as the Additional Act and the Interpretative Declaration of the 4th May, 1896. These instruments shall remain in force in regard to relations with States which do not ratify the present Convention.

The Signatory States of the present Convention may declare at the exchange of ratifications that they desire to remain bound, as regards any specific point, by the provisions of the Conventions which they have previously signed.

  Article 28.
The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Berlin not later than the 1st July, 1910.

Each Contracting Party shall, as regards the exchange of ratifications, deliver a single instrument, which shall be deposited with those of the other countries in the archives of the Government of the Swiss Confederation. Each Party shall receive in return a copy of the procès-verbal of the exchange of ratifications signed by the Plenipotentiaries who took part.

  Article 29.
The present Convention shall be put in force three months after the exchange of ratifications, and shall remain in force for an indefinite period until the termination of a year from the day on which it may have been denounced.

Such denunciation shall be made to the Government of the Swiss Confederation. It shall only take effect in regard to the country which made it, the Convention remaining in full force and effect for the other countries of the Union.

  Article 30.
The States which shall introduce in their legislation the duration of protection for fifty years contemplated by Article 7, first paragraph, of the present Convention, shall give notice thereof in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it at once to all the other States of the Union.

 The same procedure shall be followed in the case of the States renouncing the reservations made by them in virtue of Articles 25, 26, and 27.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention, and have affixed thereto their seals.

Done at Berlin, the 13th day of November, 1908, in a single copy, which shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the Swiss Confederation, and of which duly certified copies shall be transmitted by the diplomatic channel to the contracting countries.

For Germany:

(l.s.)   Dr. K. Von Studt.
(l.s.)   Von Koerner.
(l.s.)   Dungs.
(l.s.)   Goebel Von Harrant.
(l.s.)   Robolski.
(l.s.)   Josef Kohler.
(l.s.)   Osterrieth.

伯尔尼公约1908年柏林文本

Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berlin Act, 1908)

This edition published in The Copyright Act, 1911 (UK).

Article 1.
The Contracting States are constituted into an Union for the protection of the rights of authors over their literary and artistic works.

  Article 2.
The expression "literary and artistic works" shall include any production in the literary, scientific or artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its reproduction, such as books, pamphlets, and other writings; dramatic or dramatico-musical works, choreographic works and pantomimes, the acting form of which is fixed in writing or otherwise; musical compositions with or without words; works of design, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography; illustrations, geographical charts; plans, sketches, and plastic works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science .

Translations, adaptations, arrangements of music and other reproductions in an altered form of a literary or artistic work as well as collections of different works, shall be protected as original works without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work.

The contracting countries shall bound to make provision for the protection of the above-mentioned Works.

Works of art applied to industrial purposes shall be protected so far as the domestic legislation of each country allows.

  Article 3.
The present Convention shall apply to photographic works and to works produced by a process analogous to photography. The contracting countries shall be bound to make provision for their protection.

  Article 4.
Authors who are subjects or citizens of any of the countries of the Union shall enjoy in countries other than the country of origin of the work, for their works, whether unpublished or first published in a country of the Union, the rights which the respective law’s do now or may hereafter grant to natives as well as the rights specially granted by the present Convention.

The enjoyment and the exercise of these rights shall not be subject to the performance of any formality; such enjoyment and such exercise are independent of the existence of protection in the country of origin of the work. Consequently, apart from the express stipulations of the present Convention, the extent of protection, as well as the means of redress secured to the author to safeguard his rights, shall be governed exclusively by the laws of the country where protection is claimed.

The country of origin of the work shall be considered to be: in the case of unpublished works, the country to which the author belongs; in the case of published works, the country of first publication; and in the case of works published simultaneously in several countries of the Union, the country the laws of which grant the shortest period of protection. In the case of works published simultaneously in a country outside the Union and in a country of the Union: the latter country shall be considered exclusively as the country of origin.

By published works must be understood, for the purposes of the present Convention, works copies of which are issued by a publisher. The representation of a dramatic or dramatico-musical work, the performance of a musical work,  the exhibition of a work of art, and the construction of a work of architecture shall not constitute a publication.

  Article 5.
Authors being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union who first publish their works in another country of the Union shall have in this latter country the same rights as native authors.

  Article 6.
Authors not being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union, who first publish their works in one of those countries, shall enjoy in that country the same rights as native authors, and in the other countries of the Union the rights granted by the present Convention.

  Article 7.
The term of protection granted by the present Convention shall include the life of the author and fifty years after his death.

Nevertheless, in case such term of protection should not be uniformly adopted by all the countries of the Union, the term shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, and must not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work. Consequently the contracting countries shall only be bound to apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph in so far as such provisions are consistent with their domestic laws.

For photographic works and works produced by a process analogous to photography, for posthumous works, for anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, provided that the said term shall not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work.

  Article 8.
The authors of unpublished works, being subjects or citizens of one of the countries of the Union, and the authors  of works first published in one of those countries shall enjoy, in the other countries of the Union, during the whole term of the right in the original work, the exclusive right of making or authorizing a translation of their works.

  Article 9.
Serial stories, tales, and all other works, whether literary, scientific, or artistic, whatever their object published in the newspapers or periodicals of one of the countries of the Union may not be reproduced in the other countries without the consent of the authors.

With the exception of serial stories and tales, any newspaper article may be reproduced by another newspaper unless the reproduction thereof is expressly forbidden. Nevertheless, the source must be indicated; the legal consequences of the breach of this obligation shall be determined by the laws of the country where protection is claimed.

The protection of the present Convention shall not apply to news of the day or to miscellaneous information which is simply of the nature of items of news.

  Article 10.
As regards the liberty of extracting portions from literary or artistic works for use in publications destined for educational purposes, or having a scientific character, or for chrestomathies (selections of choice passages from an author or authors), the effect of the legislation of each country of the Union and of special Arrangements existing or to be concluded, between them is not affected by the present Convention.

  Article 11.
The stipulations of the present Convention shall apply to the public representation of dramatic or dramatico-musical works and to the public performance of musical works, whether such works be published or not .

Authors of dramatic or dramatico-musical works shall be protected during the existence of their right over the original  work against the unauthorized public representation of translations of their works.

In order to enjoy the protection of the present Article, authors shall not be bound in publishing their works to forbid the public representation or performance thereof.

  Article 12.
The following shall be specially included among the unlawful reproductions to which the present Convention applies: Unauthorized indirect appropriations of a literary or artistic work, such as adaptations, musical arrangements, transformations of a novel, tale, or piece of poetry into a dramatic piece and vice versa, &c., when they are only the reproduction of that work, in the same form or in another form, without essential alterations, additions, or abridgments, and do not present the character of a new original work.

  Article 13.
The authors of musical works shall have the exclusive right of authorizing (1) the adaptation of those works to instruments which can reproduce them mechanically; (2) the public performance of the said works by means of these instruments.

Reservations and conditions relating to the application of this Article may be determined by the domestic legislation of each country in so far as it is concerned; but the effect, of any such reservations and conditions will be strictly limited to the country which has put them in force.

The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not be retroactive, and consequently shall not be applicable in any country of the Union to works which have been lawfully adapted in that country to mechanical instruments before the coming into force of the present Convention.

Adaptations made in virtue of paragraphs 2 and 3 of the present Article, and imported without the authority of the interested parties into a country where they would not be lawful, shall be liable to seizure in that country.

Article 14.
Authors of literary, scientific or artistic works shall have the exclusive right of authorizing the reproduction and public representation of their works by cinematography.

Cinematograph productions shall be protected as literary or artistic works if, by the arrangement of the acting form or the combinations of the incidents represented, the author has given the work a personal and original character.

Without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work the reproduction by cinematography of a literary, scientific or artistic work shall be protected as an original work.

The above provisions apply to reproduction or production effected by any other process analogous to cinematography.

  Article 15.
In order that the authors of works protected by the present Convention shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be considered as such, and be consequently admitted to institute proceedings against pirates before the Courts of the various countries of the Union, it will be sufficient that their name be indicated on the work in the accustomed manner.

For anonymous or pseudonymous works the publisher, whose name is indicated on the work, shall be entitled to protect the rights belonging to the author. He shall be, without other proof, deemed to be the legal representative of the anonymous or pseudonymous author.

  Article 16.
Pirated works may be seized by the competent authorities of any country of the Union where the original work enjoys legal protection.

In such a country the seizure may also apply to reproductions imported from a country where the work is not protected, or has ceased to be protected.

The seizure shall take place in accordance with the domestic legislation of each country.

Article 17
The provisions of the present Convention cannot in any way derogate from the right belonging to the Government of each country of the Union to permit, to control, or to prohibit, by measures of domestic legislation or police, the circulation, representation, or exhibition of any works or productions in regard to which the competent authority may find it necessary to exercise that right.

  Article 18.
The present Convention shall apply to all works which at the moment of its coming into force have not yet fallen into the public domain in the country of origin through the expiration of the term of protection.

If, however, through the expiration of the term of protection which was previously granted, a work has fallen into the public domain of the country where protection is claimed, that work shall not be protected anew in that country.

The application of this principle shall take effect according to the stipulations contained in special Conventions existing, or to be concluded, to that effect between countries of the Union. In the absence of such stipulations, the respective countries shall regulate, each in so far as it is concerned, the manner in which the said principle is to be applied.

The above provisions shall apply equally in case of new accessions to the Union, and also in the event of the term of protection being extended by the application of Article 7.

  Article 19.
The provisions of the present Convention shall not prevent a claim being made for the application of any wider provisions which may be made by the legislation of a country of the Union in favour of foreigners in general.

  Article 20.
The Governments of the countries of the Union reserve to themselves the right to enter into special arrangements  between each other, provided always that such arrangements confer upon authors more extended rights than those granted by the Union, or embody other stipulations not contrary to the present Convention. The provisions of existing arrangements which answer to the above-mentioned conditions shall remain applicable.

  Article 21.
The International Office established under the name of the "Office of the International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works" shall be maintained.

That office is placed under the high authority of the Government of the Swiss Confederation, which regulates its organization and supervises its working.

The official language of the Office shall be French.

  Article 22.
The International Office collects every kind of information relative to the protection of the rights of authors over their literary and artistic works. It arranges and publishes such information. It undertakes the study of questions of general interest concerning the Union, and by the aid of documents placed at its disposal by the different Administrations, edits a periodical publication in the French language on the questions which concern the objects of the Union. The Governments of the countries of the Union reserve to themselves the power to authorize by common accord the publication by the Office of an edition in one or more other languages, if experience should show this to be requisite.

The International Office will always hold itself at the disposal of members of the Union with the view to furnish them with any special information which they may require relative to the protection of literary and artistic works.

The Director of the International Office shall make an annual report on his administration, which shall be communicated to all the members of the Union.

Article 23
The expenses of the Office of the International Union shall be shared by the contracting countries. Until a fresh decision is arrived at, they cannot exceed the sum of 60,000 fr. a year. This sum may be increased, if necessary, by the simple decision of one of the Conferences provided for in Article 24.

The share of the total expense to be paid by each country shall be determined by the division of the contracting and acceding countries into six classes, each of which shall contribute in the proportion of a certain number of units, viz. : —

1st class   25 units.

2nd „       20 „

3rd „       15 „

4th „       10 „

5th „       5 „

6th „       3 „

These coefficients are multiplied by the number of countries of each class, and the total product thus obtained gives the number of units by which the total expense is to be divided. The quotient gives the amount of the unit of expense.

Each country shall declare, at the time of its accession, in which of the said classes it desires to be placed.

The Swiss Administration prepares the Budget of the Office, superintends its expenditure, makes the necessary advances, and draws up the annual account which will be communicated to all the other Administrations.

  Article 24.
The present Convention may be submitted to revisions in order to introduce therein amendments calculated to perfect the system of the Union.

Questions of this kind, as well as those which are of interest to the Union in other respects, shall be considered in Conferences to be held successively in the countries of the Union by delegates of the said countries. The Adminis-  tration of the country where a Conference is to meet prepares, with the assistance of the International Office, the work of the Conference. The Director of the Office shall attend at the sittings of the Conferences, and shall take part in the discussions without the right to vote.

No alteration in the present Convention shall be binding on the Union except by the unanimous consent of the countries composing it.

  Article 25.
States outside the Union which make provision for the legal protection of rights forming the object of the present Convention may accede thereto on request to that effect.

Such accession shall be notified in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it to all the other countries of the Union.

Such accession shall imply full adhesion to all the clauses and admission to all the advantages provided by the present Convention. It may, nevertheless, contain an indication of the provisions of the Convention of the 9th September, 1886, or of the Additional Act of the 4th May, 1896, which they may judge necessary to substitute, provisionally at least, for the corresponding provisions of the present Convention.

  Article 26.
Contracting countries shall have the right to accede to the present Convention at any time for their Colonies or foreign possessions.

They may do this either by a general Declaration comprising in the accession all their Colonies or possessions, or by specially naming those comprised therein, or by simply indicating those which are excluded.

Such Declaration shall be notified in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it to all the other countries of the Union.

  Article 27.
The present Convention shall replace, in regard to the relations between the Contracting States, the Convention  of Berne of the 9th September, 1886, including the Additional Article and the Final Protocol of the same date, as well as the Additional Act and the Interpretative Declaration of the 4th May, 1896. These instruments shall remain in force in regard to relations with States which do not ratify the present Convention.

The Signatory States of the present Convention may declare at the exchange of ratifications that they desire to remain bound, as regards any specific point, by the provisions of the Conventions which they have previously signed.

  Article 28.
The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Berlin not later than the 1st July, 1910.

Each Contracting Party shall, as regards the exchange of ratifications, deliver a single instrument, which shall be deposited with those of the other countries in the archives of the Government of the Swiss Confederation. Each Party shall receive in return a copy of the procès-verbal of the exchange of ratifications signed by the Plenipotentiaries who took part.

  Article 29.
The present Convention shall be put in force three months after the exchange of ratifications, and shall remain in force for an indefinite period until the termination of a year from the day on which it may have been denounced.

Such denunciation shall be made to the Government of the Swiss Confederation. It shall only take effect in regard to the country which made it, the Convention remaining in full force and effect for the other countries of the Union.

  Article 30.
The States which shall introduce in their legislation the duration of protection for fifty years contemplated by Article 7, first paragraph, of the present Convention, shall give notice thereof in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, who will communicate it at once to all the other States of the Union.

 The same procedure shall be followed in the case of the States renouncing the reservations made by them in virtue of Articles 25, 26, and 27.

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention, and have affixed thereto their seals.

Done at Berlin, the 13th day of November, 1908, in a single copy, which shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the Swiss Confederation, and of which duly certified copies shall be transmitted by the diplomatic channel to the contracting countries.

For Germany:

(l.s.)   Dr. K. Von Studt.
(l.s.)   Von Koerner.
(l.s.)   Dungs.
(l.s.)   Goebel Von Harrant.
(l.s.)   Robolski.
(l.s.)   Josef Kohler.
(l.s.)   Osterrieth.

For Belgium:

(l.s.)   Count Della Faille de Leverghem.
(l.s.)   Jules de Borchgrave.
(l.s.)   Wauwermans.
For Denmark:

(l.s.)   J. Hegermann Lindencrone.
For Spain:

(l.s.)   Luis Polo de Bernabé.
(l.s.)   Eugenio Ferraz.
For France:

(l.s.)   Jules Cambon.
(l.s.)   E. Lavisse.
(l.s.)   Paul Hervieu.
(l.s.)   L. Renault.
(l.s.)   Gavarry.
(l.s.)   G. Breton.
(l.s.)   Georges Lecomte.
 For Great Britain:

(l.s.)   H. G. Bergne.
(l.s.)   George R. Askwith.
(l.s.)   J. De Salis.
For Italy:

(l.s.)   Pansa.
(l.s.)   Luigi Eoux.
(l.s.)   Samuele Ottolenghi.
(l.s.)   Emilio Venezian.
(l.s.)   Avv. Augusto Ferrari.
For Japan:

(l.s.)   Mizuno Rentaro.
(l.s.)   Horiguchi Kumaichi.
For the Liberian Republic:

(l.s.)   Von Koerner.
For Luxembourg:

(l.s.)   Count De Villers.
For Monaco:

(l.s.)   Baron De Rolland.
For Norway:

(l.s.)   Klaus Hoel.
For Sweden:

(l.s.)   Taube.
(l.s.)   P. M. Af Ugglas.
For Switzerland:

(l.s.)   Alfred Von Claparède.
(l.s.)   W. Kraft.
For Tunis:

(l.s.)   Jean Gout.

互联网上的隐藏地带:暗网

除了前两天提到的Usenet所代表的新闻组服务外,互联网上还有许多隐藏地带。“暗网”就是其中一类。

 

暗网

维基百科,自由的百科全书(2009年3月8日版本)
注意:本页面复制自维基百科,根据维基百科的要求,在知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议之条款下提供。请转载者遵循该条款。

暗网(又称作深网,不可见网,隐藏网)是指互联网上的内容,不属于那些可以被标准搜索引擎索引的表面网络。

迈克尔.伯格曼将当今互联网上的搜索服务比喻为像在地球的海洋表面的拉起一个大网的搜索,巨量的表面信息固然可以通过这种方式被查找得到,可是还有相当大量的信息由于隐藏在深处而被搜索引擎错失掉。绝大部分这些隐藏的信息[暗信息]是由于网页信息必须通过动态请求而产生,而标准的搜索引擎却无法对其进行查找。传统的搜索引擎‘看’不到也获取不了这些存在于暗网的内容,除非通过特定的搜查这些页面才会动态产生,于是相对的,暗网就隐藏了起来。据估计,暗网是大于几个数量级表面网站。[1]

[编辑] 命名

除了前两天提到的Usenet所代表的新闻组服务外,互联网上还有许多隐藏地带。“暗网”就是其中一类。

 

暗网

维基百科,自由的百科全书(2009年3月8日版本)
注意:本页面复制自维基百科,根据维基百科的要求,在知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议之条款下提供。请转载者遵循该条款。

暗网(又称作深网,不可见网,隐藏网)是指互联网上的内容,不属于那些可以被标准搜索引擎索引的表面网络。

迈克尔.伯格曼将当今互联网上的搜索服务比喻为像在地球的海洋表面的拉起一个大网的搜索,巨量的表面信息固然可以通过这种方式被查找得到,可是还有相当大量的信息由于隐藏在深处而被搜索引擎错失掉。绝大部分这些隐藏的信息[暗信息]是由于网页信息必须通过动态请求而产生,而标准的搜索引擎却无法对其进行查找。传统的搜索引擎‘看’不到也获取不了这些存在于暗网的内容,除非通过特定的搜查这些页面才会动态产生,于是相对的,暗网就隐藏了起来。据估计,暗网是大于几个数量级表面网站。[1]

[编辑] 命名

迈克尔.伯格曼引用法兰克.加西亚在1996年一月的一篇文章指出,早在1994年的时候,吉尔.艾尔斯沃夫曾使用“不可见网络”这一术语去表示那些没有被任何搜索引擎索引注册的网站:[2]

“这些网站可能已经被合理地设计出来了,但是他们却没有被任何搜索引擎编列索引,以至于事实上没有人能找到他们。我可以这样对这些不可见的网站说,你们是隐藏了的。”

另外一些早期使用不可见网络这一术语的,是一家名为“个人图书馆软件”公司的布鲁斯.芒特(产品开发总监)和马修.B.科尔(首席执行官和创建人),当他们公司在1996十二月年推出发行的一款软件时,他们对@1暗网工具的有过这么的一番描述。[3]

不可见网络这一术语其实并不准确,它描述的只是那些在暗网中,可被搜索的数据库不被标准搜索引擎索引和查询的内容,而对于知道如何进入访问这些内容的人来说,它们又是相当可见的。

第一次使用暗网这一特定术语,是2001年伯格曼的研究当中。[1]

[编辑] 暗网资源

  • 动态内容
  • 未被链接内容
  • 私有网站
  • Contextual Web
  • 被限制存取内容
  • 脚本化内容
  • 非HTML/文本内容

[编辑] 引用

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Bergman, Michael K.(2001年August月).The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value.The Journal of Electronic Publishing,7(1). . According to that paper, the study was originally published on July 26, 2000, with data then updated to 2001.
  2. ^ Garcia, Frank (January 1996). "Business and Marketing on the Internet". Masthead 9 (1). (Citation from Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen (19 December 2006). "The Ultimate Guide to the Invisible Web". oceanflynn @ Digg.) (Electronic copy archived by the Internet Archive.)
  3. ^ Personal Library Software (Dec 1996). "PLS introduces AT1, the first ‘second generation’ Internet search service". (Archived by the Internet Archive.)

中华民国著作权法2009年修订内容

2009年(中華民國九十八年)5月13日,台湾正式公布了新修订的著作权法。这次修订主要是规定了ISP的民事免则事由,即增加一章为第六章之一,并在该章中增加九个条文(九十條之四至第九十條之十二),并在第三条(定义条款)中增加了第十九项。以下为增订的法条。该法全文可以在维基文库中查找到

 

第三條     本法用詞,定義如下:
……
十九、網路服務提供者,指提供下列服務者:
(一)連線服務提供者:透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,以有線或無線方式,提供資訊傳輸、發送、接收,或於前開過程中之中介及短暫儲存之服務者。
(二)快速存取服務提供者:應使用者之要求傳輸資訊後,透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,將該資訊為中介及暫時儲存,以供其後要求傳輸該資訊之使用者加速進入該資訊之服務者。
(三)資訊儲存服務提供者:透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,應使用者之要求提供資訊儲存之服務者。
(四)搜尋服務提供者:提供使用者有關網路資訊之索引、參考或連結之搜尋或連結之服務者。

 

2009年(中華民國九十八年)5月13日,台湾正式公布了新修订的著作权法。这次修订主要是规定了ISP的民事免则事由,即增加一章为第六章之一,并在该章中增加九个条文(九十條之四至第九十條之十二),并在第三条(定义条款)中增加了第十九项。以下为增订的法条。该法全文可以在维基文库中查找到

 

第三條     本法用詞,定義如下:
……
十九、網路服務提供者,指提供下列服務者:
(一)連線服務提供者:透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,以有線或無線方式,提供資訊傳輸、發送、接收,或於前開過程中之中介及短暫儲存之服務者。
(二)快速存取服務提供者:應使用者之要求傳輸資訊後,透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,將該資訊為中介及暫時儲存,以供其後要求傳輸該資訊之使用者加速進入該資訊之服務者。
(三)資訊儲存服務提供者:透過所控制或營運之系統或網路,應使用者之要求提供資訊儲存之服務者。
(四)搜尋服務提供者:提供使用者有關網路資訊之索引、參考或連結之搜尋或連結之服務者。

 

第六章之一 網路服務提供者之民事免責事由

第九十條之四  符合下列規定之網路服務提供者,適用第九十條之五至第九十條之八之規定:
一、以契約、電子傳輸、自動偵測系統或其他方式,告知使用者其著作權或製版權保護措施,並確實履行該保護措施。
二、以契約、電子傳輸、自動偵測系統或其他方式,告知使用者若有三次涉有侵權情事,應終止全部或部分服務。
三、公告接收通知文件之聯繫窗口資訊。
四、執行第三項之通用辨識或保護技術措
施。
連線服務提供者於接獲著作權人或製版權人就其使用者所為涉有侵權行為之通知後,將該通知以電子郵件轉送該使用者,視為符合前項第一款規定。
著作權人或製版權人已提供為保護著作權或製版權之通用辨識或保護技術措施,經主管機關核可者,網路服務提供者應配合執行之。

第九十條之五  有下列情形者,連線服務提供者對其使用者侵害他人著作權或製版權之行為,不負賠償責任:
一、所傳輸資訊,係由使用者所發動或請求。
二、資訊傳輸、發送、連結或儲存,係經由自動化技術予以執行,且連線服務提供者未就傳輸之資訊為任何篩選或修改。

第九十條之六  有下列情形者,快速存取服務提供者對其使用者侵害他人著作權或製版權之行為,不負賠償責任:
一、未改變存取之資訊。
二、於資訊提供者就該自動存取之原始資
訊為修改、刪除或阻斷時,透過自動化技術為相同之處理。
三、經著作權人或製版權人通知其使用者涉有侵權行為後,立即移除或使他人無法進入該涉有侵權之內容或相關資訊。

第九十條之七  有下列情形者,資訊儲存服務提供者對其使用者侵害他人著作權或製版權之行為,不負賠償責任:
一、對使用者涉有侵權行為不知情。
二、未直接自使用者之侵權行為獲有財產上利益。
三、經著作權人或製版權人通知其使用者涉有侵權行為後,立即移除或使他人無法進入該涉有侵權之內容或相關資訊。

第九十條之八  有下列情形者,搜尋服務提供者對其使用者侵害他人著作權或製版權之行為,不負賠償責任:
一、對所搜尋或連結之資訊涉有侵權不知情。
二、未直接自使用者之侵權行為獲有財產
上利益。
三、經著作權人或製版權人通知其使用者
涉有侵權行為後,立即移除或使他人無法進入該涉有侵權之內容或相關資訊。

第九十條之九  資訊儲存服務提供者應將第九十條之七第三款處理情形,依其與使用者約定之聯絡方式或使用者留存之聯絡資訊,轉送該涉有侵權之使用者。但依其提供服務之性質無法通知者,不在此限。
前項之使用者認其無侵權情事者,得檢具回復通知文件,要求資訊儲存服務提供者回復其被移除或使他人無法進入之內容或相關資訊。
資訊儲存服務提供者於接獲前項之回復通知後,應立即將回復通知文件轉送著作權人或製版權人。
著作權人或製版權人於接獲資訊儲存服務提供者前項通知之次日起十個工作日內,向資訊儲存服務提供者提出已對該使用者訴訟之證明者,資訊儲存服務提供者不負回復之義務。
著作權人或製版權人未依前項規定提出訴訟之證明,資訊儲存服務提供者至遲應於轉送回復通知之次日起十四個工作日內,回復被移除或使他人無法進入之內容或相關資訊。但無法回復者,應事先告知使用者,或提供其他適當方式供使用者回復。

第九十條之十  有下列情形之一者,網路服務提供者對涉有侵權之使用者,不負賠償責任:
一、依第九十條之六至第九十條之八之規定,移除或使他人無法進入該涉有侵權之內容或相關資訊。
二、知悉使用者所為涉有侵權情事後,善意移除或使他人無法進入該涉有侵權之內容或相關資訊。

第九十條之十一  因故意或過失,向網路服務提供者提出不實通知或回復通知,致使用者、著作權人、製版權人或網路服務提供者受有損害者,負損害賠償責任。

第九十條之十二  第九十條之四聯繫窗口之公告、第九十條之六至第九十條之九之通知、回復通知內容、應記載事項、補正及其他應遵行事項之辦法,由主管機關定之。

境外互联网上的网络法站点推荐I

  豆按:“境外互联网”这个词汇最近被频繁使用。例句:“XX网站未按照我国法律法规的要求,做好淫秽色情内容的过滤工作,大量境外互联网上的淫秽色情信息通过该网站传播到我境内。”(更多新词请点这里查看)。

  当然,境外互联网上除了这些信息之外,还有很多不低俗的信息。最近几天在听有关IT法的课程,特将课堂上老师们提到的、境外互联网上优秀或者有趣的网站介绍给境内互联网的朋友。(如果你善用链接,会发现介绍的不止列出来的这些)。

 

世界数字图书馆:在互联网上以多语种形式免费提供源于世界各地各文化的重要原始材料。目标之一是缩小国家内部和国家之间的数码技术鸿沟。
 

Craphound.com(英文):科幻小说家Cory Doctorow的个人网站,其作品以双轨方式发行:一是在这个网站上免费下载阅读(使用创作共用协议),二是在书店里销售。类似的,版权法专家、杜克大学公共领域研究中心(CSPD)主任Jame Boyle的著作The Public Domain(《公共领域》)也是以这种双轨方式发行的。为什么这样?根据Prof. Deven Desai的看法,因为Reputation(名气)与著作权法所保护的作品一样,已经成为了一个作者在数字时代的重要资产。

 

关于知识产权和公共领域的多语教育资源系统:提到了CSPD,就介绍一下这个中文页面。

 

Peter Yu (余家明)教授个人网站(英文):他是美国德雷克大学知识产权研究中心主任,香港出生的他同时也是香港大学的访问教授,有许多有关中国知识产权的研究成果,当然他的研究领域不限于中国。这个网站上有大量有价值的资料和链接——不过在利用这些资料前,请也注意他的WebPolicy

 

“数字青少年”项目:这不是课堂上,而是Issac Mao介绍的。如果真的有心考虑孩子的未来建议各位政策制定者们去阅读一下其中的报告。

 

  豆按:“境外互联网”这个词汇最近被频繁使用。例句:“XX网站未按照我国法律法规的要求,做好淫秽色情内容的过滤工作,大量境外互联网上的淫秽色情信息通过该网站传播到我境内。”(更多新词请点这里查看)。

  当然,境外互联网上除了这些信息之外,还有很多不低俗的信息。最近几天在听有关IT法的课程,特将课堂上老师们提到的、境外互联网上优秀或者有趣的网站介绍给境内互联网的朋友。(如果你善用链接,会发现介绍的不止列出来的这些)。

 

世界数字图书馆:在互联网上以多语种形式免费提供源于世界各地各文化的重要原始材料。目标之一是缩小国家内部和国家之间的数码技术鸿沟。
 

Craphound.com(英文):科幻小说家Cory Doctorow的个人网站,其作品以双轨方式发行:一是在这个网站上免费下载阅读(使用创作共用协议),二是在书店里销售。类似的,版权法专家、杜克大学公共领域研究中心(CSPD)主任Jame Boyle的著作The Public Domain(《公共领域》)也是以这种双轨方式发行的。为什么这样?根据Prof. Deven Desai的看法,因为Reputation(名气)与著作权法所保护的作品一样,已经成为了一个作者在数字时代的重要资产。

 

关于知识产权和公共领域的多语教育资源系统:提到了CSPD,就介绍一下这个中文页面。

 

Peter Yu (余家明)教授个人网站(英文):他是美国德雷克大学知识产权研究中心主任,香港出生的他同时也是香港大学的访问教授,有许多有关中国知识产权的研究成果,当然他的研究领域不限于中国。这个网站上有大量有价值的资料和链接——不过在利用这些资料前,请也注意他的WebPolicy

 

“数字青少年”项目:这不是课堂上,而是Issac Mao介绍的。如果真的有心考虑孩子的未来建议各位政策制定者们去阅读一下其中的报告。

 

最后,请听一首著名歌曲:Weird Al Yankovic: Don’t Download This Song

(鉴于传说境内互联网看不到Youtube,我就不嵌入视频了,下面是Youtube的地址,有兴趣的自己想办法看)

有关著作权主题的部分精华帖子

这是一个集锦,有两点说明。
1、除了下面列出的日志外,本站“论文”栏目中还有一些相关论文。
2、部分帖子需要权限才能阅读。

cf89e13f

这是一个集锦,有两点说明。

1、除了下面列出的日志外,本站“论文”栏目中还有一些相关论文。

2、部分帖子需要权限才能阅读。

 

 

我、菜头、蟑螂、版权

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=506

看不懂的美国《2007知识产权保护法案》

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=493

就上一主题讨论的更正并道歉

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=496

14个西文在线书库

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=481

RSS导入的版权保护问题

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=555

RSS所涉版权问题

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=479

删除数字文档不被认为构成软件侵权?

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=579

Revisit the Nature of Copyright Law

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=626

国家标准的版权问题

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=636

DRM必被破解,技术绝不可能替代法律

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=538

台湾“中华民国”著作权法

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=206

色戒被剪部分的著作权问题

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=604

美国2007年度“特别301”报告

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=466

Intellectual Property Rights in a Networked World

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=464

Duke Center for Study of Public Domain

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=463

别让网络安全成为一场春梦——关于讯雷和华军等资源网站间争议的评论

点这里看

Hochelaga Lectures 2002 – The Innovation Commons

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=471

EU Directive on the legal protection of databases

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=468

Economist Corporate Network 给毕马威的中国知识产权报告

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=467

Book: Resisting Intellecutual Porperty

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=454

全球法律网

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=450

关于搜狗词库是否构成作品的澄清

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=443

William Cornish: Intellectual Property(2004)

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=410

大清印刷物专律

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=382

WCT and WPPT Resource Center

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=379

China Formally Decides to join the WCT and WPPT

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=365

最高院网络著作权司法解释的变迁

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=343

“出租权”概念辨析

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=311

论中国著作权法上的信息网络传播权

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=310

Some Useful Links on China Internet Governance

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=254

Who Controls the Internet?

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=243

德国民法典英译版

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=405

开放图书馆正式启用,公共领域的书籍可任意下载

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=537

其实,我也不懂什么是“网站”

http://www.blawgdog.com/article.asp?id=521

EU Intellectual Property Legislations

European Intellectual Property Legislations
(except, trade secret, patent and trademark)


Directive 2006/116/EC
Directive 2006/116/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights.
OJ L372/12 (27.12.2006)

 
Directive 2006/115/EC
Directive 2006/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on rental right and lending right and on certain rights related to copyright in the field of intellectual property
OJ L376/28 (27.12.2006)
 
Corrigendum to Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Directive
Corrigendum to Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights
OJ L195/16 (02.06.2004)

 
Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Directive
Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights
OJ L 157/45 (30.04.2004)

 
•  Artist’s Resale Rights Directive
Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art
OJ L 272/32 (13.10.2001)

 
•  Copyright Directive
Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society
OJ L 167/10 (22.06.2001)

 
•  Database Directive
Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases
OJ
L 077/20 (27.03.1996)
 
•  Term Directive
Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights
OJ
L 290/9 (24.11.1993)
Directive 93/98/EEC has been repealed and replaced by Directive 2006/116/EC, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives.

 
•  Satellite and Cable Directive
Council Directive 93/83/EEC of 27 September 1993 on the coordination of certain rules concerning copyright and rights related to copyright applicable to satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission
OJ
L 248/15 (06.10.1993)
 
•  Rental Directive
Council Directive 92/100/EEC of 19 November 1992 on rental right and lending right and on certain rights related to copyright in the field of intellectual property
OJ
L 346/61 (27.11.1992)
(original version; also available: consolidated version)
Directive 92/100/EEC has been repealed and replaced by Directive 2006/115/EC, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives.
 
•  Software Directive:
Council Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs
OJ
L 122/42 (17.05.1991)

 

From:
http://www.ivir.nl/legislation/intellectual-property/europe.html

More legislations (especially that of the Nethelands) can be found at:

European Intellectual Property Legislations
(except, trade secret, patent and trademark)


Directive 2006/116/EC
Directive 2006/116/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights.
OJ L372/12 (27.12.2006)

 
Directive 2006/115/EC
Directive 2006/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on rental right and lending right and on certain rights related to copyright in the field of intellectual property
OJ L376/28 (27.12.2006)
 
Corrigendum to Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Directive
Corrigendum to Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights
OJ L195/16 (02.06.2004)

 
Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Directive
Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights
OJ L 157/45 (30.04.2004)

 
•  Artist’s Resale Rights Directive
Directive 2001/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the resale right for the benefit of the author of an original work of art
OJ L 272/32 (13.10.2001)

 
•  Copyright Directive
Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society
OJ L 167/10 (22.06.2001)

 
•  Database Directive
Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases
OJ
L 077/20 (27.03.1996)
 
•  Term Directive
Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights
OJ
L 290/9 (24.11.1993)
Directive 93/98/EEC has been repealed and replaced by Directive 2006/116/EC, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives.

 
•  Satellite and Cable Directive
Council Directive 93/83/EEC of 27 September 1993 on the coordination of certain rules concerning copyright and rights related to copyright applicable to satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission
OJ
L 248/15 (06.10.1993)
 
•  Rental Directive
Council Directive 92/100/EEC of 19 November 1992 on rental right and lending right and on certain rights related to copyright in the field of intellectual property
OJ
L 346/61 (27.11.1992)
(original version; also available: consolidated version)
Directive 92/100/EEC has been repealed and replaced by Directive 2006/115/EC, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives.
 
•  Software Directive:
Council Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs
OJ
L 122/42 (17.05.1991)

 

From:
http://www.ivir.nl/legislation/intellectual-property/europe.html

More legislations (especially that of the Nethelands) can be found at:

http://www.ivir.nl/legislation/intellectual-property/netherlands.htm