Who owns unauthorized fixation of the performance?

This is a bilingual post, Chinese version follows the English one (the two versions are not exactly same).

  未经许可制作的表演录音(像)的著作权问题:这是一篇双语日志,中文版本在英文后(内容略有不同)。

Fixation of the performance without the performer’s authorization will infringe the copyright. However, the questions follow: shall those unauthorized phonograms totally be discarded? Who can use them, and in what extent?

Easy124, a reader of this blog, sent me some provisions in Canadian Copyright Act. Among them, Section 15 (1) (b) noted that a performer has a copyright to:

 … reproduce any fixation that was made without the performer’s authorization.

According to this provision, the unauthorized phonograms can be utilized (at least in terms of reproduction) by the performer. Obviously, this is not an "author’s right", while it is distinct to traditional so-called "related right" in the Civil Law System. The object of reproduction is unauthorized phonogram, which is originally produced not by the subject of reproduction but an infringer. Without further research,  I cannot provide the Canadian legislator’s initial aim of granting performers this right. But I’d applause this arrangement because it saved a good many of records of the live culture. Nowadays, the recording facilities are more and more afordable by ordinary people. Many memorable moments may be recorded by layman who may not be authorized by the performer. This provision provide  those recordings opportunities to be legally reproduced.

There are more questions should be answered: who is the exact owner of these unauthorized fixation of the performance? In our Civil Law System logic, what kind of right should this reproduction belong to? When they are reproduced by the performer, can the copies be distributed  by the performer? If distributed, should the unauthorized phonogramers share the possible incomes? I cannot discuss these here for the time. But they do worth to be think again.


 

  未经表演者许可,将表演者的表演固定在音像载体上,录制人的行为属于侵权自无疑问。问题在于,这些已经固定了表演的音像制品,是不是就完全不能被利用了?如果答案是否定的话,谁有权利用?在多大范围内可以获得利用?

  之所以提起这个问题,是因为网友Easy发来几条加拿大版权法中的规定。其中Section 15 (1) (b)说:表演者有权:

复制任何未经表演者许可而制作的(其表演的)录制品。

  按照这个条文的规定,表演者是可以利用(或至少是“复制”)这些非经授权的音像制品的。显然,这种权利不但不属于大陆法系中的狭义“著作权”,也与传统意义上的“邻接权”不同——这种复制权的行为客体(未经许可的录音(像)制品)不是由享有这种复制权的主体制作的。我没有精力去做过多的检索以了解这项规则的立法动因,但这项规则本身绝对是值得赞扬的,它使大量对时代文化的记录获得了法律上的承认。尤其是在录音录像设备日益普及和简便的今天,如果没有这类规定,这些录音制品本身可能因为未经过许可而不能被复制——表演人并非这些制品的制作者,也不能径行复制它们。这样的话,许多精彩瞬间可能永远不能被合法地流传。

时间有限,这里只是简单地提出这个问题。究竟谁应当拥有未经许可的录音制品?这是一个问题。加拿大的版权法只是给我们一个思路。但其实在大陆法下,还有许多问题需要解决:例如,只是复制吗?是否可以分发?一旦复制或分发了,其制作者是否应当获得补偿?等等。都值得更深入地考虑。