ICP License Renewed and ISP Liability Released

The game of “Spoting the Difference" starts again!

Google’s ICP license renewed. See the captured today’s Google.cn web page below (left), and compare it with the page in last week (right).

Google.cn on 9 July 2010:
Google.cn on 4 July 2010:

 

Exactly as what I predicted, Google is trying to make Google.cn being a non-search engine website. It now places "Music", "Translation" and "Shopping" at the web page. These are what Google wishes to keep on running in China. While the search engine service of Google.cn is replaced by a link to google.com.hk. Legally speaking, Google.cn is not providing search engine service currently. It is merely a link to another website. Just like the links added in any of our own web posts.

The game of “Spoting the Difference" starts again!

Google’s ICP license renewed. See the captured today’s Google.cn web page below (left), and compare it with the page in last week (right).

Google.cn on 9 July 2010:
Google.cn on 4 July 2010:

 

Exactly as what I predicted, Google is trying to make Google.cn being a non-search engine website. It now places "Music", "Translation" and "Shopping" at the web page. These are what Google wishes to keep on running in China. While the search engine service of Google.cn is replaced by a link to google.com.hk. Legally speaking, Google.cn is not providing search engine service currently. It is merely a link to another website. Just like the links added in any of our own web posts.

Interestingly, please pay attention to those minor changes. It seems Google’s lawyers are demonstrating their legal skills.  For example, in the 4 July version, it says "we have moved to (我们已经移至) google.com.hk", while in current page, "we have moved to" has been moved. Why? I assume the reason might be: The sentence "WE have moved to" acknowledged that the one who runs "google.com.hk" is identically the same one who runs "google.cn". In that circumstance, Google.cn would still be critisized by Chinee authority on providing searching results including "illegal" materials. Without such sentence, when it is accused by the government, Google China may say that it is an independent legal entity who is distinctive from the operator of google.com.hk.

Besides the censorship topic. Let’s discuss something about intellectual property law (this might be more interesting): Is there any difference between providing a link to a search engine and providing a search engine service per se?

Yes, of course.

When you place a link to a web page. You will not be a service provider, therefore you will not be liable for the copyright/trademark infringement even when the linked page is full of infringing materials. If a right owner wants your money, he/she at least has to send you a notice saying "hey! The web page you are linking is full of my proprietary stuff. Please move that hyperlink!" After you recieved such letter, in China, you may have to remove the link if there is really infringing contents at the web page you are linking to. However, now in the Google’s circumstance, this will no be a problem because google.cn is linking to google.com.hk, which is owned by google.cn’s parent company.

In short, by replacing search box with a hyperlink to google.com.hk, Google.cn may escape from being accused for vicarious liability, which is by far a "killing application" of the intellectual property holders in this era of the Cambrian explosion of the Internet.

 

Note: Any views or opinions presented in this post are solely those of the author, and do not necessarily represent those of the author’s employer.

White Paper: The Internet in China

Released by: 
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

On 8 June 2010

Contents

 

Released by: 
Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

On 8 June 2010

Contents

 

互联网著作权行政保护办法中英文版

Administrative Protection of Copyright on the Internet

互联网著作权行政保护办法

Promulgated by the National Copyright Administration and the Ministry of Information Industry on 29 April 2005 and effective as of 30 May 2005 (Order No. 5, 2005).

国家版权局、信息产业部2005年4月29日颁布,5月30日生效(国家版权局、国信息产业部令2005年第5号)

Article 1 These Procedures have been formulated in accordance with the PRC, Copyright Law and the relevant laws and administrative regulations in order to strengthen the administrative protection of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services and to standardize administrative enforcement acts.

第一条  为了加强互联网信息服务活动中信息网络传播权的行政保护,规范行政执法行为,根据《中华人民共和国著作权法》及有关法律、行政法规,制定本办法。

Article 2 These Procedures shall apply to functions such as uploading, storing, linking or searching of the contents of works or audio and video products that are provided automatically on the internet in internet information services according to the commands of an internet content provider, without any editing, revision or selection of the stored or transmitted contents.

Where internet contents are directly provided in internet information services, the Copyright Law shall apply.

For the purposes of these Procedures, an “internet content provider” is an online user that publishes the relevant contents on the internet.

第二条  本办法适用于互联网信息服务活动中根据互联网内容提供者的指令,通过互联网自动提供作品、录音录像制品等内容的上载、存储、链接或搜索等功能,且对存储或传输的内容不进行任何编辑、修改或选择的行为。

    互联网信息服务活动中直接提供互联网内容的行为,适用著作权法。

    本办法所称“互联网内容提供者”是指在互联网上发布相关内容的上网用户。

Article 3 Copyright administrative departments at all levels shall carry out administrative protection of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services in accordance with laws, administrative regulations and these Procedures. The State Council department in charge of information industry and the telecommunications administrative authorities of each province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the central government shall cooperate with such work in accordance with the law.

Administrative Protection of Copyright on the Internet

互联网著作权行政保护办法

Promulgated by the National Copyright Administration and the Ministry of Information Industry on 29 April 2005 and effective as of 30 May 2005 (Order No. 5, 2005).

国家版权局、信息产业部2005年4月29日颁布,5月30日生效(国家版权局、国信息产业部令2005年第5号)

Article 1 These Procedures have been formulated in accordance with the PRC, Copyright Law and the relevant laws and administrative regulations in order to strengthen the administrative protection of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services and to standardize administrative enforcement acts.

第一条  为了加强互联网信息服务活动中信息网络传播权的行政保护,规范行政执法行为,根据《中华人民共和国著作权法》及有关法律、行政法规,制定本办法。

Article 2 These Procedures shall apply to functions such as uploading, storing, linking or searching of the contents of works or audio and video products that are provided automatically on the internet in internet information services according to the commands of an internet content provider, without any editing, revision or selection of the stored or transmitted contents.

Where internet contents are directly provided in internet information services, the Copyright Law shall apply.

For the purposes of these Procedures, an “internet content provider” is an online user that publishes the relevant contents on the internet.

第二条  本办法适用于互联网信息服务活动中根据互联网内容提供者的指令,通过互联网自动提供作品、录音录像制品等内容的上载、存储、链接或搜索等功能,且对存储或传输的内容不进行任何编辑、修改或选择的行为。

    互联网信息服务活动中直接提供互联网内容的行为,适用著作权法。

    本办法所称“互联网内容提供者”是指在互联网上发布相关内容的上网用户。

Article 3 Copyright administrative departments at all levels shall carry out administrative protection of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services in accordance with laws, administrative regulations and these Procedures. The State Council department in charge of information industry and the telecommunications administrative authorities of each province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the central government shall cooperate with such work in accordance with the law.

第三条  各级著作权行政管理部门依照法律、行政法规和本办法对互联网信息服务活动中的信息网络传播权实施行政保护。国务院信息产业主管部门和各省、自治区、直辖市电信管理机构依法配合相关工作。

Article 4 The administrative penalties imposed by copyright administrative departments for infringement of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services shall be governed by the Administrative Penalties in Connection with Copyright Implementing Procedures.

  Infringement of the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services shall be governed by the copyright administrative department at the place of infringement. Places of infringement shall include the place in which equipment such as servers used to provide the internet information services specified in Article 2 hereof is located.

第四条  著作权行政管理部门对侵犯互联网信息服务活动中的信息网络传播权的行为实施行政处罚,适用《著作权行政处罚实施办法》。

侵犯互联网信息服务活动中的信息网络传播权的行为由侵权行为实施地的著作权行政管理部门管辖。侵权行为实施地包括提供本办法第二条所列的互联网信息服务活 动的服务器等设备所在地。

Article 5 If a copyright holder discovers that his copyright is infringed by content disseminated on the internet and issues a notice to the internet content provider or any other institution it entrusts (hereafter collectively referred to as the “internet information service provider”), the internet information service provider shall immediately take actions to remove the relevant content and keep the notice of the copyright holder for six months.

第五条  著作权人发现互联网传播的内容侵犯其著作权,向互联网信息服务提供者或者其委托的其他机构(以下统称“互联网信息服务提供者”)发出通知后,互联网信息服务提供者应当立即采取措施移除相关内容,并保留著作权人的通知6个月。

Article 6 Upon receipt of the notice of the copyright holder, the internet information service provider shall record the content of the information provided and the time of publication, and the internet address or domain name used for publishing such information. The internet access service provider shall record the information of the internet content provider such as the access time, user account, internet address or domain name and the calling telephone number.

  The record referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be kept for 60 days and shall be provided upon inquiry by the copyright administrative department.

 第六条  互联网信息服务提供者收到著作权人的通知后,应当记录提供的信息内容及其发布的时间、互联网地址或者域名。互联网接入服务提供者应当记录互联网内容提供者 的接入时间、用户帐号、互联网地址或者域名、主叫电话号码等信息。

     前款所称记录应当保存60日,并在著作权行政管理部门查询时予以提供。

Article 7 If the internet information service provider removes the relevant content pursuant to the notice of the copyright holder, the internet content provider may issue to both the internet information service provider and the copyright holder a counter notice stating that the removed content does not infringe the copyright. Upon the issuance of such counter notice, the internet information service provider may immediately restore the removed content without administrative or legal liability for such restoration.

第七条  互联网信息服务提供者根据著作权人的通知移除相关内容的,互联网内容提供者可以向互联网信息服务提供者和著作权人一并发出说明被移除内容不侵犯著作权的反通知。反通知发出后,互联网信息服务提供者即可恢复被移除的内容,且对该恢复行为不承担行政法律责任。

Article 8 The notice of the copyright holder shall include the following contents:

1. proof of ownership to the copyright being infringed by the allegedly infringing content;
2. clear identity proof, address and contact details;
3. location of the allegedly infringing content on the information network;
4. relevant evidence of the infringement upon the copyright; and
5. declaration of truthfulness of the contents of the notice.

第八条  著作权人的通知应当包含以下内容:

    (一)涉嫌侵权内容所侵犯的著作权权属证明;

    (二)明确的身份证明、住址、联系方式;

    (三)涉嫌侵权内容在信息网络上的位置;

    (四)侵犯著作权的相关证据;

    (五)通知内容的真实性声明。
 

   Article 9 The counter notice of the internet content provider shall include the following contents:

1. clear identity proof, address and contact details;
2. proof of legitimacy of the removed content;
3. location of the removed content on the internet; and
4. declaration of truthfulness of the contents of the counter notice.

第九条  互联网内容提供者的反通知应当包含以下内容:

   (一)明确的身份证明、住址、联系方式;

   (二)被移除内容的合法性证明;

   (三)被移除内容在互联网上的位置;

   (四)反通知内容的真实性声明。

Article 10 The notice of the copyright holder and the counter notice of the internet content provider shall be in writing.

The notice of the copyright holder and the counter notice of the internet content provider shall be deemed not to have been issued if they do not contain the contents specified in Article 8 or Article 9 hereof.

 第十条  著作权人的通知和互联网内容提供者的反通知应当采取书面形式。

    著作权人的通知和互联网内容提供者的反通知不具备本办法第八条、第九条所规定内容的,视为未发出。

Article 11 If the internet information service provider is fully aware of the infringement of a third party‘s copyright by the internet content provider through the internet or, although not fully aware of such infringement, it fails to take actions to remove the relevant content upon receipt of the notice of the copyright holder, and the public interest is harmed at the same time, the copyright administrative department may order it to cease such infringing act and impose the following administrative penalties in accordance with Article 47 of the PRC, Copyright Law:

1. confiscate the illegal income; and
2. impose a fine of not more than three times the turnover from illegal business, or a fine not of more than Rmb 100,000 if it is difficult to calculate the turnover from illegal business.

第十一条  互联网信息服务提供者明知互联网内容提供者通过互联网实施侵犯他人著作权的行为,或者虽不明知,但接到著作权人通知后未采取措施移除相关内容,同时损害社会公共利益的,著作权行政管理部门可以根据《中华人民共和国著作权法》第四十七条的规定责令停止侵权行为,并给予下列行政处罚:

    (一)没收违法所得;

    (二)处以非法经营额3倍以下的罚款;非法经营额难以计算的,可以处10万元以下的罚款。

Article 12 If there is no evidence indicating that an internet information service provider is fully aware of the existence of the infringement or if it takes actions to remove the relevant content upon receipt of the notice of the copyright holder, it shall not bear administrative or legal liability.

第十二条  没有证据表明互联网信息服务提供者明知侵权事实存在的,或者互联网信息服务提供者接到著作权人通知后,采取措施移除相关内容的,不承担行政法律责任。

Article 13 When investigating and handling a case of infringement on the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services, the copyright administrative department may require the copyright holder to provide the necessary materials according to Article 12 of the Administrative Penalties in Connection with Copyright Implementing Procedures, as well as the notice it issues to the internet information service provider and the proof of failure of such internet information service provider to take actions to remove the relevant content.

第十三条  著作权行政管理部门在查处侵犯互联网信息服务活动中的信息网络传播权案件时,可以按照《著作权行政处罚实施办法》第十二条规定要求著作权人提交必备材料,以及向互联网信息服务提供者发出的通知和该互联网信息服务提供者未采取措施移除相关内容的证明。

Article 14 If an internet information service provider commits an act specified in Article 11 hereof and is determined by the copyright administrative department in accordance with the law as specializing in copyright piracy activities, or there are other serious circumstances, the case shall be handled by the State Council department in charge of information industry or the telecommunications administrative authority of the province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the central government in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations. The internet access service provider shall cooperate with the implementation of corresponding handling measures pursuant to the notice of the State Council department in charge of information industry or the telecommunications administration authority of the province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the central government.

第十四条  互联网信息服务提供者有本办法第十一条规定的情形,且经著作权行政管理部门依法认定专门从事盗版活动,或有其他严重情节的,国务院信息产业主管部门或者省、自治区、直辖市电信管理机构依据相关法律、行政法规的规定处理;互联网接入服务提供者应当依据国务院信息产业主管部门或者省、自治区、直辖市电信管理机构的通知,配合实施相应的处理措施。

Article 15 If an internet information service provider fails to perform its obligations according to Article 6 hereof, the State Council department in charge of information industry or the telecommunications administrative authority of the province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the central government shall issue a warning and may also impose a fine of not more than Rmb 30,000.

第十五条  互联网信息服务提供者未履行本办法第六条规定的义务,由国务院信息产业主管部门或者省、自治区、直辖市电信管理机构予以警告,可以并处三万元以下罚款。

Article 16 If, in the course of investigating and handling a case of infringement on the right of transmission on information networks in internet information services, the copyright administrative department discovers that the act of the internet information service provider is suspected to have constituted a criminal offence, it shall, pursuant to the State Council, Transfer of Suspected Criminal Cases from Administrative Enforcement Authority Provisions, transfer the case to the judicial authority for pursuit of criminal liability in accordance with the law.

第十六条  著作权行政管理部门在查处侵犯互联网信息服务活动中的信息网络传播权案件过程中,发现互联网信息服务提供者的行为涉嫌构成犯罪的,应当依照国务院《行政执法机关移送涉嫌犯罪案件的规定》将案件移送司法部门,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 17 These Procedures shall apply to the administrative protection of the rights of holders of copyright-related right, such as performers and producers of audio and video products, to disseminate their performance or their audio and video products to the public on the internet.

第十七条  表演者、录音录像制作者等与著作权有关的权利人通过互联网向公众传播其表演或者录音录像制品的权利的行政保护适用本办法。

Article 18 The National Copyright Administration and the Ministry of Information Industry shall be responsible for interpreting these Procedures.

第十八条  本办法由国家版权局和信息产业部负责解释。

Article 19    These Procedures shall be implemented as of 30 May 2005.

第十九条  本办法自2005年5月30日起施行。

中国1990著作权法中英文版

NOTE: Please DO NOT quote this text for current legal cases because it has been amended tremendously twice by the 2001 Amendment of Copyright Law and the 2010 Amendment of  Copyright Law. I republish it hereby merely for the purpose of historical ressearch.

注意:本法已在2001年 和2010年被两次修订,许多条文已经改变,不能再适用。我贴在这里只是为了方便历史研究的回顾。

NOTE: Please DO NOT quote this text for current legal cases because it has been amended tremendously twice by the 2001 Amendment of Copyright Law and the 2010 Amendment of  Copyright Law. I republish it hereby merely for the purpose of historical ressearch.

注意:本法已在2001年 和2010年被两次修订,许多条文已经改变,不能再适用。我贴在这里只是为了方便历史研究的回顾。

Copyright Law of The People’s Republic of China (1990/9/7)
 
 

Law adopted at the Fifteenth Session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress on September 7, 1990.

CHAPTER I     General Provisions


Article 1.
This Law is enacted, in accordance with the Constitution, for the purposes of protecting the copyright of authors in their literary, artistic and scientific works and the rights related to copyright, of encouraging the creation and dissemination of works which would contribute to the construction of socialist spiritual and material civilization, and of promoting the development and flourishing of socialist culture and sciences.

Article 2.Works of Chinese citizens, legal entities or entities without legal personality, whether published or not, shall enjoy copyright in accordance with this Law.
Works of foreigners first published in the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy copyright in accordance with this Law.
Any work of a foreigner published outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China which is eligible to enjoy copyright under an agreement concluded between the country to which the foreigner belongs and China, or under an international treaty to which both countries are party, shall be protected in accordance with this Law.

Article 3.For the purposes of this Law, the term ""works" includes works of literature, art, natural science, social science, engineering technology and the like which are expressed in the following forms:
(1) written works;
(2) oral works;
(3) musical, dramatic, quyi* and choreographic works;
* Quyi refers to such traditional art forms as ballad singing, story telling, comic dialogues, clapper talks and cross talks (translator’s note).
(4) works of fine art and photographic works;
(5) cinematographic, television and videographic works;
(6) drawings of engineering designs and product designs, and descriptions thereof;
(7) maps, sketches and other graphic works;
(8) computer software;
(9) other works as provided for in laws and administrative regulations.

Article 4.Works the publication or distribution of which is prohibited by law shall not be protected by this Law.
Copyright owners, in exercising their copyright, shall not violate the Constitution or laws or prejudice the public interest.

Article 5.This Law shall not be applicable to:
(1) laws; regulations; resolutions, decisions and orders of state organs; other documents of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature; and their official translations;
(2) news on current affairs; and
(3) calendars, numerical tables, forms of general use and formulas.

Article 6.Regulations for the protection of copyright in expressions of folklore shall be established separately by the State Council.

Article 7.Where any scientific or technological work is protected under the Patent Law, the Law on Technology Contracts or similar laws, the provisions of those laws shall apply.

Article 8.The copyright administration department under the State Council shall be responsible for the nationwide administration of copyright. The copyright administration department of the People’s Government of each province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the Central Government shall be responsible for the administration of copyright in its administrative area.

CHAPTER II       Copyright

Section 1 – Copyright Owners and Their Rights

Article 9.The term "copyright owners" shall include:
(1) authors;
(2) other citizens, legal entities and entities without legal personality enjoying copyright in accordance with this Law.

Article 10.The term "copyright" shall include the following personality rights and property rights:
(1) the right of publication, that is, the right to decide whether to make a work available to the public;
(2) the right of authorship, that is, the right to claim authorship and to have the author’s name mentioned in connection with the work;
(3) the right of alteration, that is, the right to alter or authorize others to alter one’s work;
(4) the right of integrity, that is, the right to protect one’s work against distortion and mutilation;
(5) the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration, that is, the right of exploiting one’s work by reproduction, live performance, broadcasting, exhibition, distribution, making cinematographic, television or video production, adaptation, translation, annotation, compilation and the like, and the right of authorizing others to exploit one’s work by the above-mentioned means and of receiving remuneration therefor.

Section 2 – Ownership of Copyright

Article 11.Except where otherwise provided in this Law, the copyright in a work shall belong to its author.
The author of a work is the citizen who has created the work .
Where a work is created according to the intention and under the supervision and responsibility of a legal entity or entity without legal personality, such legal entity or entity without legal personality shall be deemed to be the author of the work. The citizen, legal entity or entity without legal personality whose name is mentioned in connection with a work shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to be the author of the work .

Article 12.Where a work is created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement of a preexisting work, the copyright in the work thus created shall be enjoyed by the adapter, translator, annotator or arranger, provided that the exercise of such copyright shall not prejudice the copyright in the original work.
Article 13.Where a work is created jointly by two or more coauthors, the copyright in the work shall be enjoyed jointly by those coauthors.
Coauthorship may not be claimed by anyone who has not participated in the creation of the work .
If a work of joint authorship can be separated into independent parts and exploited separately, each coauthor shall be entitled to independent copyright in the parts that he has created, provided that the exercise of such copyright shall not prejudice the copyright in the joint work as a whole.

Article 14.The copyright in a work created by compilation shall be enjoyed by the compiler, provided that the exercise of such copyright shall not prejudice the copyright in the preexisting works included in the compilation.
The authors of such works included in a compilation as can be exploited separately shall be entitled to exercise their copyright in their works independently.

Article 15.The director, scriptwriter, lyricist, composer, cameraman and other authors of a cinematographic, television or videographic work shall enjoy the right of authorship in the work, while the other rights included in the copyright shall be enjoyed by the producer of the work.
The authors of the screenplay, musical works and other works that are included in a cinematographic, television or videographic work and can be exploited separately shall be entitled to exercise their copyright independently.

Article 16.A work created by a citizen in the fulfillment of tasks assigned to him by a legal entity or entity without legal personality shall be deemed to be a work created in the course of employment. The copyright in such work shall be enjoyed by the author, subject to the provisions of the second paragraph of this Article, provided that the legal entity or entity without legal personality shall have a priority right to exploit the work within the scope of its professional activities. During the two years after the completion of the work, the author shall not, without the consent of the legal entity or entity without legal personality, authorize a third party to exploit the work in the same way as the legal entity or entity without legal personality does.
In the following cases the author of a work created in the course of employment shall enjoy the right of authorship, while the legal entity or entity without legal personality shall enjoy the other rights included in the copyright and may reward the author:
(1) drawings of engineering designs and product designs and descriptions thereof, computer software, maps and other works created in the course of employment mainly with the material and technical resources of the legal entity or entity without legal personality and under its responsibility;
(2) works created in the course of employment where the copyright is, in accordance with laws, administrative regulations or contracts, enjoyed by the legal entity or entity without legal personality.

Article 17.The ownership of the copyright in a commissioned work shall be agreed upon in a contract between the commissioning and the commissioned parties. In the absence of a contract or of an explicit agreement in the contract, the copyright in such a work shall belong to the commissioned party.

Article 18.The transfer of ownership of the original copy of a work of fine art, or other works, shall not be deemed to include the transfer of the copyright in such work, provided that the right to exhibit the original copy of a work of fine art shall be enjoyed by the owner of such original copy.

Article 19.Where the copyright in a work belongs to a citizen, the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration in respect of the work shall, after his death, during the term of protection provided for in this Law, be transferred in accordance with the provisions of the Inheritance Law.
Where the copyright in a work belongs to a legal entity or entity without legal personality, the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration shall, after the change or the termination of the status of the legal entity or entity without legal personality, during the term of protection provided for in this Law, be enjoyed by the succeeding legal entity or entity without legal personality which has taken over the former’s rights and obligations, or, in the absence of such successor entity, by the State.

Section 3 – Term of Protection

Article 20.The rights of authorship, alteration and integrity of an author shall be unlimited in time.

Article 21.The term of protection of the right of publication, the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration in respect of a work of a citizen shall be the lifetime of the author and fifty years after his death, expiring on December 31 of the fiftieth year after his death. In the case of a work of joint authorship, such term shall expire on December 31 of the fiftieth year after the death of the last surviving author.
The term of protection of the right of publication, the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration in respect of a work where the copyright belongs to a legal entity or entity without legal personality, or in respect of a work created in the course of employment where the legalentity or entity without legal personality enjoys the copyright (except the right of authorship), shall be fifty years, expiring on December 31 of the fiftieth year after the first publication of such work, provided that any such work that has not been published within fifty years after the completion of its creation shall no longer be protected under this Law.
The term of protection of the right of publication, the right of exploitation and the right to remuneration in respect of a cinematographic, television, videographic or photographic work shall be fifty years, expiring on December 31 of the fiftieth year after the first publication of such work, provided that any such work that has not been published within fifty years after the completion of its creation shall no longer be protected under this Law.

Section 4 – Limitations on Rights

Article 22.In the following cases, a work may be exploited without permission from, and without payment of remuneration to, the copyright owner, provided that the name of the author and the title of the work shall be mentioned and the other rights enjoyed by the copyright owner by virtue of this Law shall not be prejudiced:
(1) use of a published work for the purposes of the user’s own private study, research or self- entertainment;
(2) appropriate quotation from a published work in one’s own work for the purposes of introduction to, or comments on, a work, or demonstration of a point;
(3) use of a published work in newspapers, periodicals, radio programs, television programs or newsreels for the purpose of reporting current events;
(4) reprinting by newspapers or periodicals, or rebroadcasting by radio stations or television stations, of editorials or commentators’ articles published by other newspapers, periodicals, radio stations or television stations;
(5) publication in newspapers or periodicals, or broadcasting by radio stations or television stations, of a speech delivered at a public gathering, except where the author has declared that publication or broadcasting is not permitted;
(6) translation, or reproducion in a small quantity of copies, of a published work for use by teachers or scientific researchers, in classroom teaching or scientific research, provided that the translation or reproduction shall not be published or distributed;
(7) use of a published work by a state organ for the purpose of fulfilling its official duties;
(8) reproduction of a work in its collections by a library, archive, memorial hall, museum, art gallery or similar institution, for the purposes of the display, or preservation of a copy, of the work;
(9) free-of-charge live performance of a published work;
(10) copying, drawing, photographing or video recording of an artistic work located or on display in an outdoor public place;
(11) translation of a published work from the Han language into minority nationality languages for publication and distribution within the country;
(12) transliteration of a published work into braille and publication of the work so transliterated.
The above limitations on rights shall be applicable also to the rights of publishers, performers, producers of sound recordings and video recordings, radio stations and television stations.

CHAPTER III
Copyright Licensing Contracts

Article 23.Subject to provisions in this Law according to which no permission is needed, anyone who exploits a work created by others shall conclude a contract with, or otherwise obtain permission from, the copyright owner.

Article 24.A contract shall include the following basic clauses:
(1) the manner of exploitation of the work covered by the license;
(2) the exclusive or non-exclusive nature of the right to exploit the work covered by the license;
(3) the scope and term of the license;
(4) the amount of the remuneration and the method of its payment;
(5) the liability in the case of breach of the contract;
(6) any other matter that the contracting parties consider necessary.

Article 25.The licensee shall not, without permission from the copyright owner, exercise any right that the copyright owner has not expressly licensed in the contract.

Article 26.The term of validity of a contract shall not exceed ten years. The contract may be renewed on expiration of that term.

Article 27.The tariffs for remuneration for the exploitation of works shall be established by the copyright administration department under the State Council in collaboration with other departments concerned.
Where otherwise agreed to in a contract, remuneration may also be paid in accordance with the terms of the said contract.

Article 28.Publishers, performers, producers of sound recordings and video recordings, radio stations, television stations and other entities who or which have obtained, pursuant to this Law, the right to exploit the copyright of others, shall not infringe the authors’ rights of authorship, alteration or integrity, or their right to remuneration.

CHAPTER IV
Publication, Performance, Sound Recording, Video Recording and Broadcasting


Section 1 – Publication of Books, Newspapers and Periodicals
Article 29.A book publisher who publishes a book shall conclude a publishing contract with, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner.

Article 30.During the term of the contract, a book publisher shall have the exclusive right to publish the work delivered to him by the copyright owner for publication. The term of the exclusive right to publish, enjoyed by the publisher as specified in the contract, shall not exceed ten years. The contract may be renewed on expiration.
During the term specified in the contract, the exclusive right to publish a work enjoyed by the book publisher shall be protected by law, and the work may not be published by others.

Article 31.The copyright owner shall deliver the work within the term specified in the contract. The book publisher shall publish the work in accordance with the quality requirements and within the term specified in the contract.
The book publisher shall bear the civil liability specified in Article 47 of this Law if he fails to publish the work within the term specified in the contract.
The book publisher shall notify, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner when the work is to be reprinted or republished. If the publisher refuses to reprint or republish the work when stocks of the book are exhausted, the copyright owner shall have the right to terminate the contract.

Article 32.Where a copyright owner has submitted the manuscript of his work to a newspaper or a periodical publisher for publication and has not received, within 15 days from the newspaper publisher or within 30 days from the periodical publisher, counted from the date of submission of the manuscript, any notification of the said publisher’s decision to publish the work, the copyright owner may submit the manuscript of the same work to another newspaper or periodical publisher for publication, unless the two parties have agreed otherwise.
Except where the copyright owner has declared that reprinting or excerpting is not permitted, other newspaper or periodical publishers may, after the publication of the work by a newspaper or periodical, reprint the work or print an abstract of it or print it as reference material, but such other publishers shall pay remuneration to the copyright owner as prescribed in regulations.

Article 33.A book publisher may alter or abridge a work with the permission of the copyright owner.
A newspaper or periodical publisher may make editorial modifications and abridgments in a work, but shall not make modifications in the content of the work unless permission has been obtained from the author.

Article 34.When publishing works created by adaptation, translation, annotation, arrangement or compilation of preexisting works, the publisher shall pay remuneration both to the owners of the copyright in the works created by means of adaptation, translation, annotation, arrangement or compilation and to the owners of the copyright in the original works.

Section 2 Performance

Article 35.A performer (an individual performer or a performing group) who for a performance exploits an unpublished work created by another shall obtain permission from, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner.
A performer who for a commercial performance exploits a published work created by another does not need permission from, but shall, as prescribed by regulations, pay remuneration to, the copyright owner; such work shall not be exploited where the copyright owner has declared that such exploitation is not permitted.
A performer who for a commercial performance exploits a work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement of a preexisting work shall pay remuneration both to the owner of the copyright in the work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement and to the owner of the copyright in the original work.
Where a performer performs a work created by another and that performance is exploited for the production of a sound recording, video recording, radio program or television program, Article 37 and Article 40 shall apply.

Article 36.A performer shall, in relation to his performance, enjoy the right
(1) to claim performership;
(2) to protect the image inherent in his performance from distortion;
(3) to authorize others to make live broadcasts;
(4) to authorize others to make sound recordings and video recordings for commercial purposes, and to receive remuneration therefor.

Section 3 Sound Recording and Video Recording

Article 37.A producer of sound recordings who, for the production of a sound recording, exploits an unpublished work created by another, shall obtain permission from, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner. A producer of sound recordings who, for the production of a sound recording, exploits a published work created by another, does not need permission from, but shall, as prescribed by regulations, pay remuneration to, the copyright owner; such work shall not be exploited where the copyright owner has declared that such exploitation is not permitted.
A producer of video recordings who, for the production of a video recording, exploits a work created by another shall obtain permission from, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner.
A producer of sound recordings or video recordings who exploits a work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement of a preexisting work shall pay remuneration both to the owner of the copyright in the work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement and to the owner of the copyright in the original work.

Article 38.When producing a sound recording or video recording, the producer shall conclude a contract with, and pay remuneration to, the performers.

Article 39.A producer of sound recordings or video recordings shall have the right to authorize others to reproduce and distribute such sound recordings or video recordings and the right to obtain remuneration therefor. The term of protection of such rights shall be fifty years, expiring on December 31 of the fiftieth year after the first publication of the recording.
A producer of sound recordings or video recordings who is authorized to reproduce and distribute a sound recording or video recording shall also pay remuneration to the copyright owner and to the performer as prescribed by regulations.

Section 4 Broadcasting by a Radio Station or Television Station

Article 40.A radio station or television station that exploits, for the production of a radio or television program, an unpublished work created by another, shall obtain permission from, and pay remuneration to, the copyright owner.
A radio station or television station that exploits, for the production of a radio or television program, a published work created by another does not need a permission from the copyright owner, but such a work shall not be exploited where the copyright owner has declared that such exploitation is not permitted. In addition, remuneration shall be paid as prescribed by regulations unless this Law provides that no remuneration need to be paid.
A radio station or television station that exploits, for the production of a radio or television program, a work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement of a preexisting work, shall pay remuneration both to the owner of the copyright in the work created by adaptation, translation, annotation or arrangement and to the owner of the copyright in the original work.

Article 41.When producing a radio program or television program, the radio station or television station shall conclude a contract with, and pay remuneration to, the performers.

Article 42.A radio station or television station shall, in respect of a program produced by it, enjoy the right:
(1) to broadcast the program;
(2) to authorize others to broadcast the program, and to receive remuneration therefor;
(3) to authorize others to reproduce and distribute the radio or television program, and to receive remuneration therefor.
The term of protection of the rights specified in the preceding paragraph shall be fifty years, expiring on December 31 of the fiftieth year after the first broadcasting of the program .
A producer of sound recordings or video recordings who is authorized to reproduce and distribute a radio or television program shall also pay remuneration to the copyright owner and to the performer as prescribed by regulations.

Article 43.A radio station or television station that broadcasts, for non-commercial purposes, a published sound recording needs not obtain permission from, or pay remuneration to, the copyright owner, performer or producer of the sound recording.

Article 44.A television station that broadcasts a cinematographic, television or videographic work produced by another shall obtain permission from, and pay remuneration to, the producer of the cinematographic, television or videographic work.

CHAPTER V
Legal Liabilities

Article 45.Anyone who commits any of the following acts of infringement shall bear civil liability for such remedies as ceasing the infringing act, eliminating the effects of the act, making a public apology or paying compensation for damages, depending on the circumstances:
(1) publishing a work without the consent of the copyright owner;
(2) publishing a work of joint authorship as a work created solely by oneself, without the consent of the other coauthors;
(3) having one’s name mentioned in connection with a work created by another, in order to seek personal fame and gain, where one has not taken part in the creation of the work;
(4) distorting or mutilating a work created by another;
(5) exploiting a work by performance, broadcasting, exhibition, distribution, making cinematographic, television or video productions, adaptation, translation, annotation, compilation, or by other means, without the consent of the copyright owner, unless otherwise provided in this Law;
(6) exploiting a work created by another without paying remuneration as prescribed by regulations;
(7) broadcasting a live performance without the consent of the performer;
(8) committing other acts of infringement of copyright and of other rights related to copyright.

Article 46.Anyone who commits any of the following acts of infringement shall bear civil liability for such remedies as ceasing the infringing act, eliminating the effects of the act, making a public apology or paying compensation for damages, depending on the circumstances, and may, in addition, be subjected by a copyright administration department to such administrative penalties as confiscation of unlawful income from the act or imposition of a fine:
(1) plagiarizing a work created by another;
(2) reproducing and distributing a work for commercial purposes without the consent of the copyright owner;
(3) publishing a book where the exclusive right of publication belongs to another;
(4) reproducing and publishing a sound recording or video recording of a performance without the consent of the performer;
(5) reproducing and distributing a sound recording or video recording produced by another, without the consent of the producer;
(6) reproducing and distributing a radio or television program produced by a radio station or television station without the consent of the radio station or television station;
(7) producing or selling a work of fine art where the signature of an artist is counterfeited.

Article 47.A party who fails to fulfill his contractual obligations, or executes them in a manner that is not in conformity with the agreed conditions of the contract, shall bear civil liability in accordance with the relevant provisions of the General Principles of the Civil Law.

Article 48.A dispute over copyright infringement may be settled by mediation. If mediation is unsuccessful, or if one of the parties fails to carry out an agreement reached by mediation, proceedings may be instituted in a people’s court. Proceedings may also be instituted directly in a people’s court if the parties do not wish to settle the dispute by mediation.

Article 49.A dispute over a copyright contract may be settled by mediation. It may also be submitted for arbitration to a copyright arbitration body under the arbitration clause in the contract, or under a written arbitration agreement concluded after the contract has been signed.
The parties shall implement the arbitration award. If one of the parties fails to implement the award, the other party may apply to a people’s court for enforcement.
If the people’s court that has been requested to enforce an arbitration award finds the award unlawful, it shall have the right to refuse the enforcement. If a people’s court refuses to enforce an arbitration award, the parties may institute proceedings concerning the contractual dispute in a people’s court .
Any party may institute proceedings directly in a people’s court in the absence of an arbitration clause in the contract or in the absence of a written arbitration agreement concluded after the contract has been signed.

Article 50.Any party who objects to an administrative penalty may institute proceedings in a people’s court within three months of having received the written decision on the penalty. If a party neither institutes proceedings nor implements the decision within the above time limit, the copyright administration department concerned may apply to a people’s court for enforcement.

CHAPTER VI
Supplementary Provisions

Article 51.For the purposes of this Law, the terms "zhuzuoquan*" and "banquan*" are synonymous.
* Zhuzuoquan corresponds to "author’s right," but literally translated means "right in a work"; banquan is the literal translation of "copyright." This Article has been included in the Law as both expressions are used in Chinese.

Article 52.The term "reproduction" as used in this Law shall mean the act of producing one or more copies of a work by printing, photocopying, copying, lithographing, making a sound recording or video recording, duplicating a recording, or duplicating a photographic work, or by other means.
The term "reproduction" as used in this Law shall not cover the construction or the manufacture of industrial products on the basis of drawings of engineering designs and product designs, and descriptions thereof.

Article 53.Regulations for the protection of computer software shall be established separately by the State Council.

Article 54.The implementing regulations of this Law shall be drawn up by the copyright administration department under the State Council and implemented on approval by the State Council.

Article 55.The rights of copyright owners, publishers, performers, producers of sound recordings and video recordings, radio stations and television stations as provided for in this Law, of which the term of protection specified in this Law has not yet expired on the date of this Law’s entry into force, shall be protected in accordance with this Law.
Any infringements of copyright and the rights related to copyright or breaches of contract committed prior to the entry into force of this Law shall be dealt with under the relevant regulations or policies in force at the time when the act was committed.

Article 56.This Law shall enter into force on June 1, 1991.

中华人民共和国著作权法

(1990年9月7日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十五次会议通过)

中华人民共和国主席令第三十一号

《中华人民共和国著作权法》已由中华人民共和国第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十五次会议于 1990年9月7日通过,现予公布,自1990年6月1起施行。

中华人民共和国主席 杨尚昆

1990年9月7日

第一章 总则

第一条 为保护文学、艺术和科学作品 作者的著作权,以及与著作权有关的权益,鼓励有益于社会主义精神文明、物质文明建设的作品的创作和传播,促进社会主义文化和科学事业的发展与繁荣,根据宪 法制定本法。

第二条 中国公民、法人或者非法人单位的作品,不论是否发表,依照本法享有著作权。

外国人的作品首先在 中国境内发表的,依照本法享有著作权。

外国人在中国境外发表的作品,根据其所属国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约享有的著作 权,受本法保护。

第三条 本法所称的作品,包括以下列形式创作的文学、艺术和自然科学、社会科学、工程技术等作品:

(一)文字作品;

(二)口述作品;

(三)音乐、戏剧、曲艺、舞蹈作品;

(四)美术、摄影作 品;

(五)电影、电视、录像作品;

(六)工程设计、产品设计图纸及其说明;

(七)地图、示 意图等图形作品;

(八)计算机软件;

(九)法律、行政法规规定的其他作品。

第四条 依法禁止出 版、传播的作品,不受本法保护。

著作权人行使著作权,不得违反宪法和法律,不得损害公共利益。

第五条 本法不适用 于:

(一)法律、法规,国家机关的决议、决定、命令和其他具有立法、行政、司法性质的文件,及其官方正式译文;

(二)时事新闻;

(三)历法、数表、通用表格和公式。

第六条 民间文学艺术作品的著作权保护办法由国务院另行规 定。

第七条 科学技术作品中应当由专利法、技术合同法等法律保护的,适用专利法、技术合同法等法律的规定。

第八条 国 务院著作权行政管理部门主管全国的著作权管理工作;各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的著作权行政管理部门主管本行政区域的著作权管理工作。

第二章 著作权

第一节 著作权人及其权利

第九条 著作权人包括:

(一) 作者;

(二)其他依照本法享有著作权的公民、法人或者非法人单位。

第十条 著作权包括下列人身权和财产权:

(一)发表权,即决定作品是否公之于众的权利;

(二)署名权,即表明作者身份,在作品上署名的权利;

(三)修 改权,即修改或者授权他人修改作品的权利;

(四)保护作品完整权,即保护作品不受歪曲、篡改的权利;

(五)使用 权和获得报酬权,即以复制、表演、播放、展览、发行、摄制电影、电视、录像或者改编、翻译、注释、编辑等方式使用作品的权利;以及许可他人以上述方式使用 作品,并由此获得报酬的权利。

第二节 著作权归属

第十一条 著作权属于作者,本法另有规 定的除外。

创作作品的公民是作者。

由法人或者非法人单位主持,代表法人或者非法人单位意志创作,并由法人或者非 法人单位承担责任的作品,法人或者非法人单位视为作者。

如无相反证明,在作品上署名的公民、法人或者非法人单位为作者。

第 十二条 改编、翻译、注释、整理已有作品而产生的作品,其著作权由改编、翻译、注释、整理人享有,但行使著作权时,不得侵犯原作品的著作权。

第 十三条 两人以上合作创作的作品,著作权由合作作者共同享有。没有参加创作的人,不能成为合作作者。

合作作品可以分割使用的,作者对 各自创作的部分可以单独享有著作权,但行使著作权时不得侵犯合作作品整体的著作权。

第十四条 编辑作品由编辑人享有著作权,但行使著作权 时,不得侵犯原作品的著作权。

编辑作品中可以单独使用的作品的作者有权单独行使其著作权。

第十五条 电影、电视、录 像作品的导演、编剧、作词、作曲、摄影等作者享有署名权,著作权的其他权利由制作电影、电视、录像作品的制片者享有。

电影、电视、录 像作品中剧本、音乐等可以单独使用的作品的作者有权单独行使其著作权。

第十六条 公民为完成法人或者非法人单位工作任务所创作的作品是职 务作品,除本条第二款的规定以外,著作权由作者享有,但法人或者非法人单位有权在其业务范围内优先使用。作品完成两年内,未经单位同意,作者不得许可第三 人以与单位使用的相同方式使用该作品。

有下列情形之一的职务作品,作者享有署名权,著作权的其他权利由法人或者非法人单位享有,法人 或者非法人单位可以给予作者奖励:

(一)主要是利用法人或者非法人单位的物质技术条件创作,并由法人或者非法人单位承担责任的工程设 计、产品设计图纸及其说明、计算机软件、地图等职务作品;

(二)法律、行政法规规定或者合同约定著作权由法人或者非法人单位享有的职 务作品。

第十七条 受委托创作的作品,著作权的归属由委托人和受托人通过合同约定。合同未作明确约定或者没有订立合同的,著作权属于受托 人。

第十八条 美术等作品原件所有权的转移,不视为作品著作权的转移,但美术作品原件的展览权由原件所有人享有。

第十九 条 著作权属于公民的,公民死亡后,其作品的使用权和获得报酬权在本法规定的保护期内,依照继承法的规定转移。

著作权属于法人或者非 法人单位的,法人或者非法人单位变更、终止后,其作品的使用权和获得报酬权在本法规定的保护期内,由承受其权利义务的法人或者非法人单位享有;没有承受其 权利义务的法人或者非法人单位的,由国家享有。

第三节 权利的保护期

第二十条 作者的署名权、修改权、保护作品完整 权的保护期不受限制。

第二十一条 公民的作品,其发表权、使用权和获得报酬权的保护期为作者终生及其死亡后五十年,截止于作者死亡后第五 十年的12月31日;如果是合作作品,截止于最后死亡的作者死亡后的第五十年的12月31日。

法人或者非法人单位的作品、著作权(署 名权除外)由法人或者非法人单位享有的职务作品,其发表权、使用权和获得报酬权的保护期为五十年,截止于作品首次发表后第五十年的12月31日,但作品自 创作完成后五十年内未发表的,本法不再保护。

电影、电视、录像和摄影作品的发表权、使用权和获得报酬权的保护期为五十年,截止于作品 首次发表后第五十年的12月31日,但作品自创作完成后五十年内未发表的,本法不再保护。

第四节 权利的 限制

第二十二条 在下列情况下使用作品,可以不经著作权人许可,不向其支付报酬,但应当指明作者姓名、作品名称,并且不得侵犯著作权人依 照本法享有的其他权利:

(一)为个人学习、研究或者欣赏,使用他人已经发表的作品;

(二)为介绍、评论某一作品 或者说明某一问题,在作品中适当引用他人已经发表的作品;

(三)为报道时事新闻,在报纸、期刊、广播、电视节目或者新闻纪录影片中引 用已经发表的作品;

(四)报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台刊登或者播放其他报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台已经发表的社论、评论员文章;

(五)报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台刊登或者播放在公众集会上发表的讲话,但作者声明不许刊登、播放的除外;

(六)为学校课堂教学 或者科学研究,翻译或者少量复制已经发表的作品,供教学或者科研人员使用,但不得出版发行;

(七)国家机关为执行公务使用已经发表的 作品;

(八)图书馆、档案馆、纪念馆、博物馆、美术馆等为陈列或者保存版本的需要,复制本馆收藏的作品;

(九) 免费表演已经发表的作品;

(十)对设置或者陈列在室外公共场所的艺术作品进行临摹、绘画、摄影、录像;

(十一) 将已经发表的汉族文字作品翻译成少数民族文字在国内出版发行;

(十二)将已经发表的作品改成盲文出版。

以上规定 适用于对出版者、表演者、录音录像制作者、广播电台、电视台的权利的限制。

第三章 著作权许可使用合同

第二十三条 使 用他人作品应当同著作权人订立合同或者取得许可,本法规定可以不经许可的除外。

第二十四条 合同包括下列主要条款:

(一)许可使用作品的方式;

(二)许可使用的权利是专用使用权或者非专有使用权;

(三)许可使用的范围、期间;

(四)付酬标准和办法;

(五)违约责任;

(六)双方认为需要约定的其他内容。

第二十五条 合 同中著作权人未明确许可的权利,未经著作权人许可,另一方当事人不得行使。

第二十六条 合同的有效期限不超过十年。合同期满可以续订。

第 二十七条 使用作品的付酬标准由国务院著作权行政管理部门会同有关部门制定。

合同另有约定的,也可以按照合同支付报酬。

第 二十八条 出版者、表演者、录音录像制作者、广播电台、电视台等依照本法取得他人的著作权使用权的,不得侵犯作者的署名权、修改权、保护作品完整权和获得 报酬权。

第四章 出版、表演、录音录像、播放

第一节 图书、报刊的出版

第 二十九条 图书出版者出版图书应当和著作权人订立出版合同,并支付报酬。

第三十条 图书出版者对著作权人交付出版的作品,在合同约定期间 享有专有出版权。合同约定图书出版者享有专有出版权的期限不得超过十年,合同期满可以续订。

图书出版者在合同约定期间享有的专有出版 权受法律保护,他人不得出版该作品。

第三十一条 著作权人应当按照合同约定期限交付作品。图书出版者应当按照合同约定的出版质量、期限出 版图书。

图书出版者不按照合同约定期限出版,应当依照本法第四十七条的规定承担民事责任。

图书出版者重印、再版 作品的,应当通知著作权人,并支付报酬。图书脱销后,图书出版者拒绝重印、再版的,著作权人有权终止合同。

第三十二条 著作权人向报社、 杂志社投稿的,自稿件发出之日起十五日内未收到报社通知决定刊登的,或者自稿件发出之日起三十日内未收到杂志社通知决定刊登的,可以将同一作品向其他报 社、杂志社投稿。双方另有约定的除外。

作品刊登后,除著作权人声明不得转载、摘编的外,其他报刊可以转载或者作为文摘、资料刊登,但 应当按照规定向著作权人支付报酬。

第三十三条 图书出版者经作者许可,可以对作品修改、删节。

报社、杂志社可以对作 品作文字性修改、删节,对内容的修改,应当经作者许可。

第三十四条 出版改编、翻译、注释、整理、编辑已有作品而产生的作品,应当向改 编、翻译、注释、整理、编辑作品的著作权人和原作品的著作权人支付报酬。

第二节 表演

第 三十五条 表演者(演员、演出单位)使用他人未发表的作品演出,应当取得著作权人许可,并支付报酬。

表演者使用他人已发表的作品进行 营业性演出,可以不经著作权人许可,但应当按照规定支付报酬;著作权人声明不许使用的不得使用。

表演者使用改编、翻译、注释、整理已 有作品而产生的作品进行营业性演出,应当按照规定向改编、翻译、注释、整理作品的著作权人和原作品的著作权人支付报酬。

表演者为制作 录音录像和广播、电视节目进行表演使用他人作品的,适用本法第三十七条、第四十条的规定。

第三十六条 表演者对其表演享有下列权利:

(一)表明表演者身份;

(二)保护表演形象不受歪曲;

(三)许可他人从现场直播;

(四) 许可他人为营利目的录音录像,并获得报酬。

第三节 录音录像

第三十七条 录音制作者使用 他人未发表的作品制作录音制品,应当取得著作权人的许可,并支付报酬。使用他人已发表的作品制作录音制品,可以不经著作人许可,但应当按照规定支付报酬; 著作权人声明不许使用的不得使用。

录像制作者使用他人作品制作录像制品,应当取得著作权人的许可,并支付报酬。

录音录像制作者使用改编、翻译、注释、整理已有作品而产生的作品,应当向改编、翻译、注释、整理作品的著作权人和原作品的著作权人支付报酬。

第 三十八条 录音录像制作者制作录音录像制品,应当同表演者订立合同,并支付报酬。

第三十九条 录音录像制作者对其制作的录音录像制品,享 有许可他人复制发行并获得报酬的权利。该权利的保护期为五十年,截止于该制品首次出版后第五十年的12月31日。

被许可复制发行的录 音录像制作者还应当按照规定向著作权人和表演者支付报酬。

第四节 广播电台、电视台播放

第四十 条 广播电台、电视台使用他人未发表的作品制作广播、电视节目,应当取得著作权人的许可,并支付报酬。

广播电台、电视台使用他人已发 表的作品制作广播、电视节目,可以不经著作权人许可,但著作权人声明不许使用的不得使用;并且除本法规定可以不支付报酬的以外,应当按照规定支付报酬。

广播电台、电视台使用改编、翻译、注释、整理已有作品而产生的作品制作广播、电视节目,应当向改编、翻译、注释、整理作品的著作权人和原作品的著作权人 支付报酬。

第四十一条 广播电台、电视台制作广播、电视节目,应当同表演者订立合同,并支付报酬。

第四十二条 广播电 台、电视台对其制作的广播、电视节目,享有下列权利:

(一)播放;

(二)许可他人播放,并获得报酬;

(三)许可他人复制发行其制作的广播、电视节目,并获得报酬。

前款规定的权利的保护期为五十年,截止于该节目首次播放后第五十年的 12月31日。

被许可复制发行的录音录像制作者还应当按照规定向著作权人和表演者支付报酬。

第四十三条 广播电台、 电视台非营业性播放已经出版的录音制品,可以不经著作权人、表演者、录音制作者许可,不向其支付报酬。

第四十四条 电视台播放他人的电 影、电视和录像,应当取得电影、电视制片者和录像制作者的许可,并支付报酬。

第五章 法律责任

第四十五条 有下列侵权 行为的,应当根据情况,承担停止侵害、消除影响、公开赔礼道歉、赔偿损失等民事责任:

(一)未经著作权人许可,发表其作品的;

(二)未经合作作者许可,将与他人合作创作的作品当作自己单独创作作品发表的;

(三)没有参加创作,为谋取个人名利,在他人作品上 署名的;

(四)歪曲、篡改他人作品的;

(五)未经著作权人许可,以表演、播放、展览、发行、摄制电影、电视、录 像或者改编、翻译、注释、编辑等方式使用作品的,本法另有规定的除外;

(六)使用他人作品,未按照规定支付报酬的;

(七)未经表演者许可,从现场直播其他表演的;

(八)其他侵犯著作权以及与著作权有关的权益的行为。

第四十六条  有下列侵权行为的,应当根据情况,承担停止侵害、消除影响、公开赔礼道歉、赔偿损失等民事责任,并可以由著作权行政管理部门给予没收非法所得、罚款等行政 处罚:

(一)剽窃、抄袭他人作品的;

(二)未经著作权人许可,以营利为目的,复制发行其作品的;

   (三)出版他人享有专有出版权的图书的;

(四)未经表演者许可,对其表演制作录音录像出版的;

(五)未经录音 录像制作者许可,复制发行其制作的录音录像的;

(六)未经广播电台、电视台许可,复制发行其制作的广播、电视节目的;

(七)制作、出售假冒他人署名的美术作品的。

第四十七条 当事人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定条件的,应当

依 照民法通则有关规定承担民事责任。

第四十八条 著作权侵权纠纷可以调解,调解不成或者调解达成协议后一方反悔的,可以向人民法院起诉。当 事人不愿调解的,也可以直接向人民法院起诉。

第四十九条 著作权合同纠纷可以调解,也可以依据合同中的仲裁条款或者事后达成的书面仲裁协 议,向著作权仲裁机构申请仲裁。

对于仲裁裁决,当事人应当履行。当事人一方不履行仲裁裁决的,另一方可以申请人民法院执行。

受申请的人民法院发现仲裁裁决违法的,有权不予执行人民法院不予执行的,当事人可以就合同纠纷向人民法院起诉。

当事人没有在合同中 订立仲裁条款,事后又没有书面仲裁协议的,可以直接向人民法院起诉。

第五十条 当事人对行政处罚不服的,可以在收到行政处罚决定书三个月 内向人民法院起诉,期满不起诉又不履行的,著作权行政管理部门可以申请人民法院执行。

第六章 附则

第五十一条 本法所 称的著作权与版权系同义语。

第五十二条 本法所称的复制,指以印刷、复印、临摹、拓印、录音、录像、翻录、翻拍等方式将作品制作一份或者 多份的行为。

按照工程设计、产品设计图纸及其说明进行施工、生产工业品,不属于本法所称的复制。

第五十三条 计算机 软件的保护办法由国务院另行规定。

第五十四条 本法的实施条例由国务院著作权行政管理部门制定,报国务院批准后施行。

第 五十五条 本法规定的著作权人和出版者、表演者、录音录像制作者、广播电台、电视台的权利,在本法施行之日尚未超过本法规定的保护期的,依照本法予以保 护。

本法施行前发生的侵权或者违约行为,依照侵权或者违约行为发生时的有关规定和政策处理。

第五十六条 本法自 1991年6月1日起施行。

Judicial Mediation – A Deprofessionalization?

ON 15 AND 16 APRIL 2009, CityU of HK Law School held an international conference on the mediation. Experts from China, Hong Kong, Australia and Macau presented their latest academic outputs in the meeting.

 

The interesting thing is: Most Chinese experts are focusing on the judicial mediation, which is the mediation coordinated, and in many circumstances initiated, by judges during the litigations. Experts in other jurisdictions, by contrary, tends to discuss the mediation out of the court.

 

ON 15 AND 16 APRIL 2009, CityU of HK Law School held an international conference on the mediation. Experts from China, Hong Kong, Australia and Macau presented their latest academic outputs in the meeting.

 

The interesting thing is: Most Chinese experts are focusing on the judicial mediation, which is the mediation coordinated, and in many circumstances initiated, by judges during the litigations. Experts in other jurisdictions, by contrary, tends to discuss the mediation out of the court.

 

China’s judiciary system is actually now experiencing a new wave of transformation. Contrary to the trend before 2007, the current path of the "judicial reform" is to make the judiciary more "close to people". One of the core measures is to enhance the "judicial mediation". In my view, if the "profesionalization is a world trend for the mediation" (stated by Professor Nadja Alexander, a prominent expert in the arena of mediation), then the emphasizing of the "judicial mediation" in Chinese courts can be named a trend of de-professionalization of the litigation.

 

In a lunch seminar a week later from the conference, Mr. WU Zhi, an Asso. professor from Hunan Normal University brought his interesating talk about the "the mediation in Chinese IP litigations" in CityU. His presentation proved again my assumption. In resent three years, Chinese judiciary system has issued a good many of documents on the policies of the mediation. Now the Supreme People’s Courts seems stressed the mediation as the preference in the dispute resolution.

 

The most interesting thing in prof. Wu’s seminar is the discussion among auditors. Most of auditors are the students who registered in CityU’s creative LLM program for mainland judges. Because they are judges on the mainland China, they have many experiences in those judcial mediation. This makes the discussion being exciting. As a real auditor, I do obtain many useful knowledges and inpirations.

 

  VS  ?

One of the most impressive inspiration is: why the Chinese courts eager to be mediation centers? Two judges answered this question respectively (one was in the seminar and the other was on his way back to the dorm together with me, and their answers are amazingly identical!): because the China’s courts are aiming at providing dispute solutions rather than the justice. This reminds me a precedent post in this blog on the "mission of the Supreme People’s Courts" (in Chinese). Yes, the Chinese courts are not set as a seperation of sovereignty powers but the institution for dispute resolution authorized by the people’s congress (at least in the Constitution literarily). The Constitution and Laws are just one of the "three supremacies" (the slogan of the supreme court – and a question in 2008 China Bar exam).

 

As a layman either in the mediation or in the procedure law. I cannot figure out whether this "deprofessionalization" is good or bad in an acedemic way. The only thing raised in my mind is: the conflict among dispute resolution mechanisms. Mediation is a more efficient way in resolving the disputes than litigation, while the feature of the litigation is it’s formal procedure which may be costly but guarantted the rule of law. When the judicary simplified its procedure and compete to the unformal (or less-formal) mechanism of dispute resolution, it actually retreated itself from the position of "transporting justice". And its status will be conflict to the existing mediation institutions. How many cost will be paid in this institutional competition?

 

Another interesting topic in is: whether the IP litigation can really be deprofessionlized in the judicial mediation – even if we narrow the aim of the courts only at efficient dispute resolution? Let’s leave this question in the next thread.

Positive Analysis to the Illegal Works in China

Copyrightable or Not: A Positive Review of illegal Works under China’s Copyright Law and Suggestions to the Legal Reform

GU Minkang & DONG Hao

Abstract:

Abstract: This article reviews the copyright dilemma of illegal works in the context of Chinese copyright system. Under the current law, not merely the works with illegal content, but also the works did not fulfill the procedural requirement will be denied the copyright protection. Article 4(1) may find legitimacy in the domestic level, but does not comply with the WTO law. The three criteria in Article 13 of TRIPS Agreement can be applied to examine Article 4(1). The key problem lies in the uncertainty of the scope of denial of copyright. This leads to the Super-national Treatment. Based on these analyses, the last part of the article proposed some suggestions for the future legal reform.

Copyrightable or Not: A Positive Review of illegal Works under China’s Copyright Law and Suggestions to the Legal Reform

GU Minkang & DONG Hao

Abstract:

Abstract: This article reviews the copyright dilemma of illegal works in the context of Chinese copyright system. Under the current law, not merely the works with illegal content, but also the works did not fulfill the procedural requirement will be denied the copyright protection. Article 4(1) may find legitimacy in the domestic level, but does not comply with the WTO law. The three criteria in Article 13 of TRIPS Agreement can be applied to examine Article 4(1). The key problem lies in the uncertainty of the scope of denial of copyright. This leads to the Super-national Treatment. Based on these analyses, the last part of the article proposed some suggestions for the future legal reform.

Keywords: Illegal Works, DS362, TRIPS, Three-Step Test, China, Copyright Reform

The fulltext of working paper (in English) can be accessed in SSRN:

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1346325