The Official English Translation of the CNNIC ccTLD Domain Dispute Resolution Policy is NOT Consistent with the Original Binding Chinese version

funny-chinese-sign-translation-fails-4

As you may know, there are generally two approaches to resolve a domain name dispute: one is to take file a civil action with a court; the other more common approach is to go through the alternative dispute resolution proceeding (ADR), i.e., file a complaint with a domain name dispute resolution center appointed by the registry.

For the administrative resolution by expert panels, the parties and the expert panels rely on the domain name resolution regulations as issued by the Registry of the relevant domain names. For the “.com” top-level domain names, such ADR proceeding is called “UDRP” proceeding. For the domain names registered under the country codes (e.g., “.cn”), the ADR policy will be provided by the registry.

The registry for the “.cn” domain names is China Internet Network Information Center (“CNNIC”). It has published its UDRP-like policy to resolve the “.cn” domain names since 2002. The policy has been amended and re-issued in 2006, 2012 and 2014.

The full name of the CNNIC’s policy reads CNNIC Country Code Top-Level (ccTLD) Domain Dispute Resolution Policy (“CNDRP”). Besides CNDRP, CNNIC also published a CNNIC Procedural Rules for the Country Code Top-Level (ccTLD) Domain Dispute Resolution (“Procedural Rules”).

Article 6 of the CNDRP (also see Article 8 of the Procedural Rules) provides that language used in the “.cn” dispute resolution proceedings shall be Chinese, whilst if parties have an agreement or the expert panel has a decision otherwise, other languages can also be used in the proceeding. In other words, English or other languages can be formally used in the panel decision for a “.cn” domain name dispute. In practice, using English in the CNDRP cases is not uncommon. In the circumstances where (i) both parties are not native Chinese speakers, (ii) the complainant can prove that the respondent can speak English and the respondent does not oppose it, or (iii) most claims and original evidence materials are in English, the complainant may request using English in the proceeding. In many cases, the expert panels have accepted such request.

In this connection, we may conclude that, although the Chinese version remains the binding document, English translations of the CNDRP and the Procedural Rules are very important tools for parties and panel experts in practice.  Given the domain names are accessible globally, CNNIC should ensure the accuracy of the translations of its policy documents.

Unfortunately, if one compares the original language in Chinese, he/she will find that the English version of the CNDRP, as published at the CNNIC official website (click here), is disturbingly inconsistent with the binding Chinese version.

Briefly, I set out some most obvious defects of the English translation below.

1. Inaccurate translation of the document title

00001

If it is a novel, the title used in the official English translation of the CNDRP would generally be fine, as “CNNIC” and “ccTLD” have been used widely to represent “China Internet Network Information Center” and “Country Code Top-Level Domain”. However, It would be better to avoid abbreviations in a formal translation of a legal document.

This is the least serious issue of the translation — you will see distrubing issues soon.

00002

The English title of the Procedural Rules is more problematic. If you read Chinese, you would see that its accurate translation should be “CNNIC Procedural Rules for the Country Code Top-Level (ccTLD) Domain Dispute Resolution”. However, the translation at CNNIC official website missed the term “Procedural”, which is a key word of the document’s title.

2. Incorrect version of the documents

At the CNNIC official website, the currently published English version of the CNDRP is a 2012 version, which has been revoked and replaced by the currently effective 2014 version already. Although the difference between the two versions are not much (three Articles were amended), it is certainly necessary to ensure the official English translation of the CNDRP to be the latest binding version, or the foreign parties and domain name registrants will be confused (They may have already been confused in the past 3 years).

3. Inconsistent meanings between Chinese and English

While you will find more places of inconsistency, I will only highlight two:

(a) Article 9(3) of the CNDRP reads (Chinese): 

第九条 被投诉的域名持有人具有下列情形之一的,其行为构成恶意注册或者使用域名:……

(三)注册或者受让域名是为了损害投诉人的声誉,破坏投诉人正常的业务活动,或者混淆与投诉人之间的区别,误导公众;…

Its English translation at the CNNIC official website is:

Article 9   Any of the following circumstances may be the evidence of the registration and use of a domain name in bad faith: …

(3) The disputed domain name holder has registered or acquired the domain name for the purpose of damaging the Complainant’s reputation, disrupting the Complainant’s normal business or creating confusion with the Complainant’s name or mark so as to mislead the public; …

First, please read the opening sentence. the subject of the original Chinese sentence of this Article is “the activity of the domain name registrant”; the verb (predicate) of the original sentence is “constitute(s)”; and the object of the sentence is “registration and use of a domain name in bad faith”. However, in the English translation, the subject becomes “circumstances”, the verb becomes “may be”, while the object of the sentence is “evidence”. Although the meanings of the two versions are largely similar, the accuracy of translation apparently cannot fulfill the requirements to legal documents.

Furthermore, please read the translation of the item (3). In the original Chinese version, the term after “or” is to describe the circumstance where the disputed domain name registrant “confuses the difference between the registrant and the complainant”. However, in the English translation, the sentence becomes “creating confusion with the complainant’s name or mark…” The terms “name” and “mark” are actually not existing in the original Chinese language. In this situation, the English translation has a substantial difference with the original Chinese provision: According to the original Chinese provision, bad faith will be found when the purpose of the registration/acquisition of a domain name was to “confuse the registrant with the complainant”. However, in the English translation, the confusion of the “marks” also constitutes bad faith.  The scope of finding bad faith becomes wider.  More importantly, such wider scope is indeed a misunderstanding of the term “confusion” in the intellectual property context. In short (sorry I won’t cite theories but this should be a common sense), “confusion” means “the consumer’s confusion on the origin of goods/service”, but not the “similarity” between two names or logos.

(b) Article 10 of the CNDRP

第十条 被投诉人在接到争议解决机构送达的投诉书之前具有下列情形之一的,表明其对该域名享有合法权益:
(一)被投诉人在提供商品或服务的过程中已善意地使用该域名或与该域名相对应的名称;
(二)被投诉人虽未获得商品商标或有关服务商标,但所持有的域名已经获得一定的知名度;
(三)被投诉人合理地使用或非商业性地合法使用该域名,不存在为获取商业利益而误导消费者的意图。

The English translation at CNNIC’s official website:

Article 10      Before receiving the complaint, any of the following circumstances may be evidence of the rights to and legitimate interests in the domain name:
(1) Your use of the domain name or a name corresponding to the domain name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services;
(2) You have been commonly known by the domain name, even if you have acquired no trademark or service mark rights;
(3) You are making a legitimate noncommercial or fair use of the domain name, without intent of or commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers.

While the aforesaid problems can be excused with the English proficiency of the translator or the limited knowledge to the relevant laws, the translation in this Article 10 deserves to be criticized from the perspective of the translator’s attitude. Without a definition or explanation, the translator used the term “you” to replace the term “Respondents” in the original Chinese version. Also, the contents of the three items in this Article are not consistent with the original Chinese. Comparing with Section 4(c) of ICANN’s Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (“UDRP”), which is made for the resolution of the top level domain names (such as “.com”), one would realize that language in the above translation came directly from the UDRP. However, the translator ignored that the CNDRP language (and even the structure of the provision) has been significantly modified.

There are other inconsistent places in this “official” translation, while I think the above is sufficient to justify that CNNIC should update the translation of legal documents as published on its website. Not just the CNDRP and the Procedure Rules, but also other documents. It is quite bizarre that foreign complainants are actually referring to incorrect documents in their “.cn” domain name disputes, for such a long period of time.

(Image credits: Chris Radley)

CNNIC 域名争议解决办法官方英译文本的质量令人担忧

funny-chinese-sign-translation-fails-10Image credits: tinypic.com

  众所周知(或者至少业内周知),域名争议解决大致有两条路径:一是通过行政程序,在域名争议解决中心由独立的专家组作出裁决;二是通过司法程序解决。对于专家组裁决,专家组和当事人所依据的是由域名管理机构所颁布的域名争议解决规则。对“.cn”域名而言,这些规则主要有:《中国互联网络信息中心国家顶级域名争议解决办法》(《解决办法》)及《中国互联网络信息中心国家顶级域名争议解决程序规则》(《程序规则》)等。

  关于争议解决程序中使用的语言,《解决办法》第六条和《程序规则》第八条规定:原则上,裁决程序使用的语言为中文,但投诉人和被投诉人另有约定,或者专家组决定采用其他语言的除外。也就是说,在一定情况下,英文或者其它语言可以作为“.cn”域名争议程序中使用的语言。这一点,在实践中也很常见。如果双方当事人均不使用中文为母语,或者投诉人能够证明被投诉人能够理解英文而被投诉人又没有反对,或者投诉人的主张和证据又大多以英文构成,投诉人就可能要求专家作裁决以英文作为程序语言,而专家组往往也会予以支持。

也就是说,尽管作准文本是中文,英文版本的《解决办法》《程序规则》在很多案件中可能成为非常重要的参考工具。其翻译的准确性也就十分必要了。然而,CNNIC官方网站上的英文版《解决办法》中,就存在显而易见的问题。下面简要列举说明之。

Continue reading “CNNIC 域名争议解决办法官方英译文本的质量令人担忧”

CN域名争议解决办法的一些链接

中國互聯網絡信息中心國家頂級域名爭議解決辦法 (English version)

中国互联网络信息中心国家顶级域名争议解决程序规则

香港國際仲裁中心關於中國互聯網絡信息中心國家頂級域名爭議解決辦法補充規則 (English version)

香港国际仲裁中心CNDRP页面

张彩芬:如何避免受制于CN域名争议解决办法的两年期限规定

博世bosch..cn域名争议

“虽然被投诉人于2003年3月17日注册本案所争议域名,但投诉人已于2006年2月9日向域名争议解决中心提交投诉书,域名争议解决中心受理投诉人的投诉时间早于《新办法》生效时间。因此,修改后的《新办法》有关时效及恶意构成方面新的规定并不适用本案。”

金派腾影像数码公司诉泰尔斯特拉公司计算机网络域名纠纷案: 北京市第一中级人民法院民事判决书(2007)一中民初字第3424号

根据上述规定可以看出,新办法仅适用于受理2006年3月17日以后发生的域名争议,且对争议域名规定了两年的期限。由于该争议的受理时间为2006年3月16日,适用修改前的《中国互联网络信息中心域名争议解决办法》,因此不受两年的期限限制。故被告向香港国际仲裁中心提出投诉未超过期限。

 

两份关于Lady Gaga CN域名的争议裁决书

根据香港国际仲裁中心的资料,自然人林清茂先后注册了“ladygaga.cn”和“ladygaga.com.cn”域名。对“Lady Gaga”拥有商标权的Ate My Heart公司因此根据域名争端解决规则,提出了域名争端解决。

两个域名由不同的专家审理,裁决结论都是一样的:将争议域名转移给投诉人。裁决论证过程则各有特色。

下面是分别是两份裁决书的链接。

Ladygaga.com.cn 

根据香港国际仲裁中心的资料,自然人林清茂先后注册了“ladygaga.cn”和“ladygaga.com.cn”域名。对“Lady Gaga”拥有商标权的Ate My Heart公司因此根据域名争端解决规则,提出了域名争端解决。

两个域名由不同的专家审理,裁决结论都是一样的:将争议域名转移给投诉人。裁决论证过程则各有特色。

下面是分别是两份裁决书的链接。

Ladygaga.com.cn 

Ladygaga.cn

————————

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终于等到了见证历史的那一天

截图02 从小就希望能成为见证历史的人,可惜运气不好,见证的都是进不了历史书的小事情,好容易弄到两张奥运的票还没法去北京送了人。所以决心专心做网络法研究,网上事是连通的,在家里就能见证,省钱、暖和。

看下面的新闻:

境外注册域名将不得用于中国业务 国际域名在列

为规范域名注册管理及服务秩序,有效开展打击手机淫秽色情专项行动,保护广大互联网用户的合法权益,工信部于2009年12月16日组织全国域名注册服务及管理机构在北京召开旨在规范全国域名注册暨贯彻落实依法打击手机淫+秽.色_情专项行动会议。

截图02 从小就希望能成为见证历史的人,可惜运气不好,见证的都是进不了历史书的小事情,好容易弄到两张奥运的票还没法去北京送了人。所以决心专心做网络法研究,网上事是连通的,在家里就能见证,省钱、暖和。

看下面的新闻:

境外注册域名将不得用于中国业务 国际域名在列

为规范域名注册管理及服务秩序,有效开展打击手机淫秽色情专项行动,保护广大互联网用户的合法权益,工信部于2009年12月16日组织全国域名注册服务及管理机构在北京召开旨在规范全国域名注册暨贯彻落实依法打击手机淫+秽.色_情专项行动会议。

工信部在依法打击手机淫+秽.色_情专项行动会议上提出从五点对域名进行监管,明确要求域名注册管理机构、域名注册服务机构,要完善管理措施,防止违规网站利用变换域名等手段逃避监管,即:被关闭网站域名持有者被纳入黑名单进行管理、对进行域名转让并提供他人使用的必须重新注册、对网站未备案的域名不予解析(含跳转)、对相关部门依法认定网站涉黄和违规的域名持有者纳入黑名单予以监管、重点清理域名管理 、服务机构存在问题等五点进行加强监管,全面贯彻落实依法打击手机淫秽色情专项行动。

上面这些我昨天的日志里已经提到了。今早有朋友说这种措施是等于在帮国外域名注册商做广告,会有大量的国际域名从中国域名注册商那里转出,可能还会有大量的网站迁移到国外的服务器托管商那里。我当时心里就想:

那~也未必,别低估咱人民政府的能力。

果然,这个新闻还没完,马上就有更刺激的:

日前,从全国域名注册服务及管理工作会议获悉,为了进一步打击淫秽色情的违法网站,国家有关部门将通过一系列的技术手段,对于部份已建站的在境外注册的域名做监管,并对国外的注册商实施相应的管制措施,杜绝非法网站利用境外注册域名境外建站来逃避打击

此外,会议还讨论了有关境外企业开展中国业务时所使用的网站的相关管理草案,今后将对一些在中国开展业务的外国企业的域名和网站实施监管,这些企业在中国开展业务所用的域名必须通过国内的注册商注册,在境外注册的域名将不得用于开展中国业务。

果然,黄天不负有心人,历史终于被我等到了,伟大祖国终于在网络时代一雪前耻——100多年前洋人多牛啊,在咱中国境内行使领事裁判权——现在我们多牛啊,国际域名怎么了,国外注册商怎么了,境外网站怎么了,照样要被咱们的人民政府管辖!外国企业想来中国做生意?挣中国人民的钱?中国人民的钱是你挣的吗?人民政府都没说话,有你喝粥的地方吗?

这是伟大的一天,绝对的2009中国网络治理第一大事件,我为自己能见证这样的历史而深感自豪。窗外的天气好冷,我的心却是热的。今天以后,我们可以骄傲地宣布自己安全地生活在Cinternet里了!

 

顺便说一下,今天起,本站许多页面被屏蔽,原因是空间服务商因为怕机房被断电,宁可错杀一千,用过滤软件(貌似是强制要求安装的)动态审查所有网站页面。当你访问到一个页面包含软件列表中的关键词的时候,页面即时被屏蔽。如果出现类似下面这种情况,请不要惊慌,要顾大局,要怀着感恩的心,按一下后退键就行了。

截图01

 

新华网:中国将不解析未备案的域名

新华网北京12月17日电(记者刘菊花)中国工业和信息化部电信管理局副局长刘杰17日透露,全国打击手机淫秽色情、开展域名注册服务管理专项规范整治行动已全面启动,工信部要求域名注册管理机构、域名注册服务机构采取五项措施规范域名注册。这些措施包括:

   建立和完善域名持有者黑名单机制,将被关闭网站域名持有者纳入黑名单进行管理,防止违规网站重新申请域名,继续从事违规经营活动。

  严格落实域名申请者应提交真实、准确、完整域名注册信息的规定,对进行域名转让并提供他人使用的,必须重新注册,违反上述要求的,依法予以注销。

  对网站未备案的域名不予解析(含跳转)

新华网北京12月17日电(记者刘菊花)中国工业和信息化部电信管理局副局长刘杰17日透露,全国打击手机淫秽色情、开展域名注册服务管理专项规范整治行动已全面启动,工信部要求域名注册管理机构、域名注册服务机构采取五项措施规范域名注册。这些措施包括:

   建立和完善域名持有者黑名单机制,将被关闭网站域名持有者纳入黑名单进行管理,防止违规网站重新申请域名,继续从事违规经营活动。

  严格落实域名申请者应提交真实、准确、完整域名注册信息的规定,对进行域名转让并提供他人使用的,必须重新注册,违反上述要求的,依法予以注销。

  对网站未备案的域名不予解析(含跳转)

  在相关部门依法认定网站涉黄和违规时,要配合停止域名解析,同时将域名持有者的全部其他域名暂停解析,及时上报认定部门进行处理,并将域名持有者纳入黑名单予以监管。

  重点清理域名注册管理机构、域名注册服务机构在业务推广渠道中业务合作伙伴、合作方式、业务推广模式和网络连接方式存在的问题。

  最近一段时期以来,有的网站经营者利欲熏心,违规开展淫秽色情信息传播活动,并采取域名变换、域名跳转,利用境外域名注册的便利性、隐蔽性等各种手段,千方百计逃避政府部门监管。

  工信部要求,各域名注册管理机构、各域名注册服务机构要切实将各项域名管理政策落实好,将域名注册服务管理好,遏制和杜绝淫秽色情网站采用域名变换方式反复接入,强力治理网站变换域名、逃避监管行为。